Friday, December 12, 2014

David, Part I

We have been studying the life of David in my Wednesday morning class at church. Only two more classes to go at least. Here is the first installment of my notes:

David: means “well beloved.”

Davidic covenant a sure prophecy of Christ:
Gen. 3:15- enmity between serpent and woman’s seed. A promise of a race in Adam.
Gen 22:18 (To Abraham after his obedience in intending to sacrifice Isaac)- “In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice.”
Gen. 49:10 (Jacob to Judah)- “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from beneath his feet, until Shiloh comes, and unto him shall be the obedience of the people.”
Read Is. 11:10, Rom. 15:12, Rev. 5:5, 22:16.
Matthew’s gospel begins with genealogy to prove Jesus was descended from David, Abraham.
2Sam. 7: 16- “And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne will be established forever.”
The faithfulness of God- 20 kings in Northern, Southern kingdom. David’s kingdom, 31/2 centuries, the northern kingdom, 2 centuries. North, 9 different dynasties. Constant overthrow. Southern kingdom lasts until Babylonian exile.
The Psalms celebrate the promises God gave to David and his descendants.  Royal psalms- record the hopes for another king like David. Centers on king who meets universal opposition, is victorious, establishes a righteous rule from Zion over the nations. His kingdom is peaceful, prosperous, everlasting, and faithful to the Lord. Friend to the poor, enemy of the oppressor, heir to the promises of David, divine- Ps. 45:6- Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of your kingdom.”
In 1 and 2Sam.- recurring theme, the Lord’s anointed. Messiah means “anointed one” (Christ is the Greek translation). Israel’s desire for Messiah grows out of belief that a righteous king like David will rule. The figure of Messiah is an integral part of belief that Israel will rule the nations.
1Sam. 13:14- man after God’s own heart. Even though Saul’s sins don’t appear as great as David’s, Saul only cared about what people thought of him. David faced Goliath alone, while Saul cowered in his tent. David loved God with his whole heart.
Writers of the New Testament declare Jesus to be the righteous king of Israel. Point to his descent from David, even the demons see him as the Son of David, Israel’s messiah.
David recorded his struggles in the Psalms, the prayer book of Israel, the prayer book which taught Jesus to pray.

1Sam. 16:1- Jesse grandson of Ruth and Boaz.
v.2- Samuel must go through Gibeah where Saul lives, to get to Bethlehem. Saul knows God has deposed him as king. Will be suspicious of any movement of Samuel, knowing Samuel will anoint Saul’s replacement.
v. 2, 4- Samuel is God’s man, always travels with a purpose, Bethlehem wonders if he comes in capacity as Judge.
v.5- sanctify self, don’t go into God’s presence, make sacrifice, irreverently.
v.7- a theme in Old Testament, Abel, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, now David, not the eldest- God not culturally bound, God looks at the heart.
v.11- David, type of Christ, shepherd, King as shepherd.
v.12- good looking, about 15.
v.13.- anointed in midst of brothers, publically show God’s favor on him. 1st of  3 annointings- he will be anointed as king of Judah, then king over all of Israel.
v. 16, 23- worship as spiritual warfare. (Luther- “If can’t pray, sing.”) Saul not yet under sentence of death. God gives him opportunity to repent when David’s music puts Saul in right mind. But Saul never does.
v. 18- not yet fought a battle, refer to killing lion, bear in chapter 17.
David as shepherd and warrior- Ps. 78: 71-72- “He chose David his servant and took him from the sheep pens; from tending sheep He brought him to be the shepherd of His people Jacob, of Israel His inheritance. And David shepherded them with integrity of heart; with skillful hands he led them.” Shepherd a despised profession.    

1Sam. 17:1- Socoh, 15 miles west of Bethlehem, in Judah, and belonging to tribe of Judah.
v4- champion- middle man, one army chooses warrior to do battle with chosen warrior from opposing army, prevent great loss of life. The army of the losing warrior serves the victorious army. Greek practice. Contest among the gods.
9ft., 9 inches.
v.5- clothed with scaled body armor, 126 lbs.
v. 7- 15-16 lbs.
Who was Goliath? An Anakite. These were the people Joshua and the spies saw in the promised land when they reported that the Israelites were like grasshoppers compared to them. Joshua mostly destroyed them, Josh. 11:21-22. Survivors settled in Gath, where Goliath was from.
v.11- Tall Saul afraid. Israel’s trust in human king had failed. Lack of faith in covenant promises.
v. 15-20- David still subject to parents, even though plays for the king, like Christ being subject to his parents.
v. 25- Israelites focused on reward.
v. 26- David focused on insult to God’s honor, sets him apart from Saul, every one else.
v.28- When a righteous person defies the enemy, fearful people turn on them. Like Jonathan before the Philistines. Also, Eliab, brothers, mad that they were not chosen,
v. 31- so they reported him to Saul. (To see him punished?)
v. 32- No arrogance, but assures Saul not to lose heart.
v. 36- No insult to fearful soldiers, called them the armies of the living God, whom Goliath defies.
v. 37- A HISTORY WITH GOD- David depends on God, not his own abilities.
v. 38-39- Saul’s armor too big for David, Saul is much taller.
v. 40- no sword or spear.  Sling shot is accurate, deadly weapon of war. Sends projectiles 100 miles/hr. See Judges 20:16.
v. 42-44- Goliath disdains David, insulted that he was the best Israel could put forward, thinks David will lose and will be the only death because Israel will serve the winner.
v. 45-47- Man’s weapons will not prevail. David speaks in God’s name, who backs up His Covenant promises. David’s strength is in his reliance on God.  “Lord of Hosts”- infinite power, resources, which God brings to bear on Israel’s behalf. First used by Hannah in 1st Sam 1. David tells Goliath that it is all Israel he has defied, David has faith that ALL the Philistines will be food for the birds.
A witness to fearful Israel, so that the earth will know that there is a God in Israel. Why God chose Israel.
v. 55-58- as a musician, family background isn’t as important. As a warrior leading Saul’s army, background more important.
v. 51- Philistines saw this as the judgment of the gods. If they had kept Goliath’s oath, see v. 4, they could have been spared. But they fled.
v. 54- Jerusalem not yet under Israel’s control. Not sure what David did. Display Goliath’s head to enemies, then, or later? Goliath’s sword later given to the priest to signify God gave the victory.See chapter 21.

1Sam.18:3-4-authority of succession given to David from Jonathan
v5,14,15,30-David behaved wisely, like Joseph, the Lord was with him.
v.7- The womens’ song conformed to Hebrew poetry, but Saul misread the content of their song.
V10- Hebrew root word sometimes used for uncontrolled, ecstatic behavior.
v.12- The Lord was with David, but left Saul.
v.13,17- hope David is killed in battle. Also v.21,25.
v.17- offer of marriage only a ploy, appear on David’s side, while trying to get him killed. See v. 21. David entitled to eldest daughter because of promise of Saul to the one who killed Goliath, see 17:25. Promise not kept. New promise made on condition of further military service, see v.25. To send David away will make kingdom talk. Kingdom probably heard about the spear throwing incidents.
v.18- see v.24, David’s family not rich.
v.21- Saul thinks David will put self in jeopardy to win Michal.
v.28- Despite this, Saul does not repent, does not accept lot, but tries to thwart God’s known will. Like King Herod.
By this time, seeing God’s favor on David, Saul now knows God has chosen David to be king.

1Sam. 19:1- at 1st, Saul tried to hide his desire to kill David. After failing to do so, he is now desperate, can’t hide murderous designs.
v.6- 7- Saul swears, but will not keep oath, violation of God’s Law. David too king at his word, won’t declare the king a liar.
v.9-10- Saul breaks oath, David flees, trust is over.
v.17- Michal lies to save David, herself, uses pagan idol. What is that doing there? Saul, family never completely left paganism.
v.18-19- David seeks protection of Israel’s judge, prophet, priest. Ramah an hours walk away. By publically taking David to Naioth, giving David legitimacy, God’s stamp of approval. What he denied Saul after Saul’s disobedience.
v. 20- Saul no longer respects Samuel’s authority, God’s anointing of David, will seek to take David, kill him.
v.20-21- School of Prophets stronger than king. Holy Spirit is dominant. See Jn. 18:4-7. Saul doesn’t learn lesson.
v.23-24- Holy Spirit’s presence upon an unspiritual man. Saul thinks he will impress Samuel, God , by such an act. Isaiah was told by God to go naked for a while. People think Saul is crazy, see 1Sam. 10:12.
Psalm 59- written by David when Saul sent soldiers to kill him at his house. A prayer of deliverance, faith in God as fortress.
v.1-2- A cry of deliverance, “protect me, deliver me”- literally- “Raise me to a high, secure place.”
v. 3- enemies use lies slander, Mt. 5; 21-22, David protests his innocence, pleads with God to judge those who wrong him. Why? See v. 13.
v.5- Lord of Hosts- God is sovereign, all His resources brought to bear upon the cause of His people. Title 1st used by Hannah, then David against Goliath. Attack on david is attack on Israel by the nations, he is God’s anointed. Is this against the spirit of Jesus? No. An appeal to God that David’s enemies be judged according to God’s Law, punishment fit the crime, by God, not by David himself.
v.6-8- Those who have no faith in God live like dogs, like Esau.
v.11,13- God in Israel seen to be God, David’s ultimate motive.
v.10-13- punish enemies in a way the people will not forget.
Trust, but act, sneaked out of own house, like Paul being let out of Damascus.
1Sam. 20:5- New Moon, a day of rest at the end of the month. Saul made it a 3 day feast.
v.12- Jonathan makes oath of loyalty to david, not to his father.
v.13- Jonathan expects David to be king.
v.14-15- vow to be merciful to Jonathan and his descendants. Common practice to kill all rivals and their families who could be claimants to the throne.
v. 16-even Saul, his father.
v.31- Saul thinks he can prevent God’s will.

1Sam. 21:2- why did David lie?did he want to protect priests from charge of complicity in David’s escape.
v.6- shew bread-12 giant loaves of bread made of wheat flour placed before the Lord, only priests could eat. Ahimelech, grandson of Eli. See Mt. 12:1-8.
v.10-11- Gath, where Goliath was from. The Philistines haven’t forgot that David had killed Goliath.
v.12-14- Trust in God, but act crazy. Ancient world regarded insanity as an ill omen from the gods. The insane were not harmed, less the god’s would be provoked. Ps. 56.

1Sam. 22:1- Abdullum, 20 miles S.W. of Jerusalem.
David’s whole family in danger, they no longer disdain him.
v.2- wasn’t just people who were discontented, but David showed himself to be a champion of the downtrodden.  400 men, core of future army.
v.3- Great grandmother Ruth, a Moabite woman. Also, Saul was the Moabite king’s enemy. David knows God has anointed him, trusts God will deliver him, but does not know the future in detail.
v.5- prophet Gad- one of Samuel’s prophets. Tells David God wants him to go against what common sense would dictate. Will meet Gad later. (Assisted David in arranging Temple services [worship with theological, spiritual content], wrote history of David’s reign [Source of Old Testament account of David’s reign], rebuked david over cencus.)
7. Saul surrounded by members of own tribe. Can’t trust anyone else, lost respect of the people. Saul asks, Who can give you favors? Appeals not to God’s anointing him as king, but to base self-interest. Acts the way Samuel prophesied, rules as a pagan ruler, takes the peoples’ property, gives to own men. See 1Sam8:16-18.
v.8- Saul no longer trusts his own servants, his own people, his own son. This will make everyone around him fearful, asking themselves, will he turn on us as he turned on David? Doesn’t honor the covenant between David and his son.
v.9- Edomites descendants of Esau, will later join Babylonians in destroying Jerusalem.
v.13- accuse priest of inquiring of the Lord for David. Proof of delusional mindset, thinks he can thwart God’s known will.
v.15- lied to save own life?
v.17- Saul now completely gone. Will kill priests. Servants know it is better to endure the king’s wrath than God’s wrath. King kills his own people he swore to protect. Can only execute people according to God’s Law, 2 or 3 witnesses.  Doeg was only 1.
v.18- wear the linen ephod, sign you spoke for God.
Priests were Eli’s descendants, the curse, none of the young men of the family will grow old in the priesthood. God’s used Saul to carry out prophecy. They were spiritual enough to risk life in support of David. If obeyed God fully, would not have served as priests.
v.22- there will always be consequences for those associated with righteous persons, like Herod killing Bethlehem’s children.
v.23- David sure God will deliver, influence others to act on this belief. Faith is acting in the knowledge we are in God’s hands.
Psalm 142- written while in cave. Cry out in distress, faith strengthened.
Chapter 23:1- Threshing floors not well guarded.  Philistines would leave farmers without food or seed grain.
v.2,4- David inquires of the Lord before he makes a move. No pride at being the anointed one.  Through Abiathar the priest, David not going to take over priestly duties as Saul did. Joshua shared authority with Eleazar the priest, Aaron’s son.
v.3- David’s men have to learn to trust God.
v. 6- Ephod, signified that one spoke for God.
v. 9-13- dialogue with God. God knows all contingencies. Knows townsmen will deliver David/David’s men to Saul, but David flees. No to Open Theism. #of Davids men grows by 200.
7. Saul won’t march against the Philistines, but will go to Kelia, destroy it if necessary, to get David.
v. 14- inaccessible.
v.16- risks own life to strengthen David.
v.17- Jonathan knows David will be king. Thinks he will serve under David. Willing to be subordinate. Last meeting between the two.
v. 18- again made a covenant.
v.19- Ziphites willing to betray David, seek Saul’s favor, keep Saul from punishing them for harboring David.
v. 21- Saul’s words delusional.
Ps. 54 written by David in response to Ziphite betrayal.
v. 26- Saul on one side of mountain, David on the other.
v.29- Place filled with caves where one could hide.

1Sam.26:1-5- Saul still pursuing David even after declared to Davvid that David will be king.
v.6- Saul’s spear, see v.7
Abishai- David’s relative, son of older sister.
v. 8- some think circumstances are indicators of God’s will
v.9-10- whatever way God chooses, David knows Saul will die and he, David, will be king.
v.12- God wanted Israel to know what kind of king David will be, merciful to king and soldiers.
v.19- if the Lord is stirring up Saul, if David had sinned, let the Lord accept a sin offering from David, without Saul’s interference. To be driven out of Israel is to be excluded from fellowship with God’s people.
v. 25- David and Saul never meet again.

1Sam.27:1- David wavers in faith.
v.2- When David went to Gath before, Philistines didn’t know Saul was pursuing David. Now, everyone knows David is fleeing Saul. Saul is the enemy of the Philistines, so Achish thinks David might become Achish’s ally.
v.4- Saul sees no reason to pursue.
v.5-7- David gets a base of action.
v.6- “…the kings of Judah” , date 1Sam. Written, after kingdom divided into Judah, Israel.
v.8-12- raid non-Israelite lands, tell Achish he is raiding Israel, kill all to keep Achish from finding out the truth. Achish gains confidence that Israel hates David.

1Sam.28:1- Achish tells David he will go into battle against his own people, Achish thinks David already has done so.
v.2- David gives ambiguous reply, Achish shows confidence against David.
v.3- what a king of Israel was supposed to do, Lev.19:26. Mediums were to be put o death.
v.4- Philistines threaten to divide kingdom in half.
v.6- Saul had disobeyed, turned his back on God, had no faith that the Lord would answer him by legitimate means, he didn’t have the Ephod, he had killed all but one of the priests from Nob.
v.7- mediums- deal with the spirits of the dead, ancestral spirits.
v. 8- disguise self, doesn’t want this to be known.
v.10- swears by the Lord to a pagan medium, deceive self, rationalize sin. Another rash oath.
v.12- 3 interpretations- Samuel a fake perpetrated by medium, a demon, or real thing. 3rd option is answer, she screamed. God is sovereign.
v.14- A mantle (NKJV) is a robe.
Saul bows down, thinks this will impress Samuel.
v.15- can you imagine being brought back to earth like this? Saul thinks Samuel will sympathize.
v.16- when you turn your back on the Lord, He becomes your enemy.
v.17- see 1Sam. 15: 26-28.
v.18- took what the Lord devoted to destruction, spared Agag, Saul only cared about appearences when Samuel told Saul God was removing him.
v.19- Saul’s army will be captured, Saul, sons killed, had every opportunity to repent, now under sentence of death.
v.20-25- medium wants Saul to eat, perhaps trying to buy Saul’s good will? After all, Saul went to her to hear what he wanted to hear, but heard the opposite. Maybe she thought Saul would have her killed for that?
Maybe Saul hoped fasting would impress God? If so, his resolve didn’t last long.

1Sam.29: The Lord intervenes to keep David from fighting his own people.
v.1- Aphek, where the Philistines captured the ark.
v.2- leaders of the 5 main Philistine cities.
v.3- David’s tactics, see chapter 27:10-12.
v.8- pretends disappointment
ambiguous answer- does he mean Achish, Saul, or the Lord?

1Sam. 30: 1- Amalekites- fought Israel when Israel moved through its land to get to the promised land. Saul was to destroy them. Likely retaliation for the attacks of David. God’s way of getting David out of the situation caused by David’s lack of faith. Also, God uses David to further judge this people.
Ziklag- Philistine city given to David by the Philistines.
v.6- people blamed David, was with Philistines when should have been guarding people, and for being in the situation in the 1st place. But David strengthens self in the Lord.
v.7-8- does not rush into action in a panic. Realizes mistake of not seeking God for everything. Consults God. Recovers all. David given fresh triumph in front of people.
9. army hasn’t grown.
v.11-15- God’s Law- do not oppress stranger, did not kill him for being enemy soldier, will keep oath they made to him.
v.17- # of men who escaped=to size of David’s army.
v.22- men of Belial- literally trouble making scoundrel, Satan. David gives God the glory for the victory, all play an important part.
v.26-31- share spoil, does not hoard like pagan king. Did not say, “Go, get your own spoil in battle.”  Gratitude for those who supported him. Here he was 1st crowned as king after Saul’s death. David earns more loyalty after near debacle.

1Sam31:4- Saul thinks only of himself, duty of armor bearer to keep king alive, armor bearer fears consequences from God/men for killing God’s anointed. Saul doesn’t care for him.
v.9- body treated like Goliath’s body. Saul’s sin gave Philistines opportunity to boast about themselves/ their gods against God.
v.11- Jabesh-Gilead- saved by Saul in his 1st military campaign. An act of gratitude.
v.13- Tamarask tree- where Saul held court.
Saul- became king at 20, ruled 40 years, 60 at death. Creamation not normal in Israel, done to prevent further abuse, David later moves remains to family tomb.

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Moses and Aaron

Here is the last of the material taught in my Wed. morning class that was taught over a year ago but had not been posted here.


Moses: to draw out, extraction, Ex. 2:10
Ex. 1-2:10. Read Ex. 1:22.
Acts 7:22- “And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and deeds.”

Ex. 2: 11-15, 22-25
v. 11- Moses knew he was a Hebrew.
v. 13- felt himself a leader of the Hebrews. Acts 7:25- thought the Hebrews would understand that he would deliver them. But….
v.12- wrath against oppressors.
In 40 years, Moses gets Egypt out of him.
v. 22- learn to be a pilgrim.
v. 23-25- God hears Israel’s cries, 450 years, prophecy to Abraham. Why? Get Israel out of Canaan- Gen. 15: 13-16.

Ex. 3
v. 2-3- not just an impressive display, but showing Moses who He is, not part of creation.
v. 5- Holy- 1st time word used of God, produce Holy fear.
v. 6- have a history of deliverance.
v. 7-8- God hears, knows, wants to deliver Israel to a good land.
v. 10- God calls Moses.
v. 12- will work with Moses where he is at.
v. 14- “To be”, I exist. Where we get Yahweh, Jehovah.
v. 18- purpose of deliverance- worship, abad, meaning of worship- slave.
Paul said we are either slaves of righteousness or slaves of sin.
v. 19-22- God knows how Pharaoh will act.

Ex. 4
v.1- 17- God gives signs to Moses.
v. 18- Moses is humble, could have been arrogant after meeting with God.
v. 21-23- God will harden Pharaoh’s heart.
See Ex. 6: 10-13, 7: 1-5, 13-14, 22, 8:8, 15, 19, 32, 9: 7, *12*, 11:10, 10: 1, 20, 27. Paul in Rom. 1 says God gives people over to their sin.
Plagues tied to Egyptian gods.

Ex. 11: 1-10, see v. 7.

Ex. 12
The Passover. v. 6, v. 23 connected.
Christ is the Passover Lamb- “…you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, as a lamb without blemish and without spot.” 1Pet. 1: 18-19.
v. 8- bitter herbs represent bitterness of slavery.
v. 12- final statement of God’s power.
v. 26-28- children are to be instructed.
v. 9- don’t eat it with the blood in it, like the pagans.
v. 10-11- pilgrims in a strange land.
v. 19-20- leaven=sin.
v. 11, 31- God delivers you speedily. He wants you to speedily remove yourself from sin.  Don’t be like Lot.
v. 43-49- no foreigners can celebrate the Passover unless circumcised.

Ex. 14
v. 4- God will harden Pharaoh’s heart. Know that the Lord is God.
v. 10-12- When someone is 1st delivered, 1st trial is major crises. Faith is developed as we develop our history with God.
v. 13-14- The Lord will fight for you.
v. 15-16- God does the work, but we are to act.
v. 21, 26, 27- division of waters not immediate, see v. 30.
Read Ps. 77: 16-19.

Ex. 18
v. 1-3- heard of all that God had done for Moses, Israel.
v. 11- “Now I know God is above all gods.”
v. 7- Moses remained humble.
v. 13-23- need to support one another. God speaks through people.

Ex. 19
v. 4-5- because of what God for them, obey on basis of that, v. 8. “therefore.” Before then, hardly any Law given to govern behavior except Passover/1st born.
v. 10-15- be of clean heart when approach God. God is holy.
v.16- there is holy fear in a genuine encounter with God.

Ex. 20
1-17- 10 commandments. See v. 2. On basis of what God has done, obey His Laws out of love, gratitude, and holy fear.
v. 22-26- don’t worship as pagans do.
v. 22- God exists, not an idol, no idolatry, see v. 23.
v. 24-25- not elaborate altars like the pagans.

Ex. 21
v. 1-11- treat servants/ slaves right, unlike other cultures.
Serve 7 years, no break up of families.
awl- public commitment to master.
Daughters redeemed, no discrimination against, among wives.
Some sell themselves because of poverty. Some men sold their daughters to the wealthy because they didn’t want them married into their own class.
Remember Gen. 9: 6, man is made in God’s image.
v. 12-27- community, government, not clan v. clan, blood feud, constant slaughter. Must prove premeditation.  Cities of refuge. v.16- kidnapping, man stealers, slavery condemned.   Death penalty. v. 15,17- preserve sanctity of the home. V. 20-27- servants treated justly.
Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth, no punishment beyond moral culpability. Jesus taught correct context for this phrase in Sermon on the Mount, Mt. 5: 38-42.
v. 31- son, daughter of = value.
v. 28- 36- culpable neglect. Man made in God’s image, any animal that kills a man must die. Animals are necessary for livelihood, survival.

Ex. 22
v.1-15- responsibility for property. V. 2- deal with pre-meditation. V.3- no death penalty for property crimes. Aim of this Law is restoration, not economic destruction.
v. 16-23:9- Justice and purity. No purity, no justice. No justice, no purity.
Ex. 22:16-18- bride money, part of father’s property.
v. 18-20- telling the future, controlling others through demonic forces, beastiality figured prominently in Canaanite worship, sacrifice to idols.
v.21- the key- treat well, Israel was a stranger.
v. 21-27- justice, “I am gracious.”
v. 28- don’t revile God.
v. 29-30- unjust men withhold from God.

Ex. 32- Israel unfaithful, unholy, before God and God’s enemies. Their conduct gave a false picture of God. When man makes God appear unholy, God is angered. See Num. 20: 8-12.

New Testament on Moses:
Acts 7:35- “This Moses whom they rejected, saying, ‘Who made you a ruler and judge?’ is the one God sent to be a ruler and a deliverer.”

Heb. 3: 1-5- Moses faithful in God’s house, but Christ is greater.
         9: 23-25- “by faith” 5 times.

Lk. 9: 28-31- Moses did make it into the Promised Land.


Aaron: mountain of strength, enlightened, bright.
Brother of Moses, 3 years older, Ex. 7:7, 4th generation after Levi. Born before Pharaoh’s decrees?
Ex. 4:14, becomes Moses’ spokesman.
Holds the rod- 7:9, 19, 8:5, 16. Moses takes rod- 9:22-23, 10:13, 22-23. Ex. 14:16- rod, Red Sea parts.
Ex. 32- The Golden Calf
v. 1-6- Aaron compromised.
v. 19-25- Aaron’s feeble excuse.
v. 25-29- sons of Levi on God’s side.
v. 34-35- God brings punishment for what Aaron had made.
Ex. 28: 1-3- Aaron’s son’s minister to God as priests. They were to be consecrated, set apart. Consecration- Lev. 8: 1-5-

Aaron, before blood sacrifice                   Aaron’s Sons, after sacrifice

Cleansed, v.6                                                 cleansed, v.6
Clothed, v. 7-8                                               clothed, v. 13
Crowned, v. 9                                                charged, v. 35
Anointed, v. 12                                              annointed, v. 30
Set apart for task, the word Christ
v. 24- blood sprinkled on them.
v.30- consecrated with blood.
v. 31-34- make atonement for them.
Lev. 9:7- make atonement for self, people.
v. 22-24- blessed the people, fire consumes (showing God’s approval), people have Godly fear. See Num. 6: 22-27.

Lev. 10
v. 1- profane fire, coals from different altar. Jewish tradition, they were drunk.  See v. 8-10.
v. 3- The Lord is holy. This is an example. So Aaron held his peace.
v. 6- don’t tear holy garments.
v. 7- did according to word of Moses. God had said that Moses would be as God to Aaron.

Num. 17- Aaron’s priesthood confirmed in budding of rod.

Num. 20- Moses and Aaron sin against the Lord. (See Ex. 17: 1-7)
v. 8, 10-11, v. 12- the sin.
v. 24- rebellion is to disobey God’s Word, Moses had called people rebels.
v. 22-29- death of Aaron for this sin. Stripped of his garments, no longer a priest. Garments not to be on the dead. Extra long mourning, 30 days. The same for Moses.

These are examples to us not to lust after wrong things, follow after false gods- 1Cor. 10: 1-13.
Jesus is our High Priest- Heb. 4:14- 5:11.
A greater priesthood- Heb. 7: 20-28.
New Priesthood- Heb. 8: 1-6
New Covenant- Heb. 8: 7-13, 9: 6-22.

Thursday, October 30, 2014


Here my notes from the study of Joseph for my Wed. morning Bible study class. This lesson was taught over a year ago.

Joseph- mother, Rachael. Jacob’s favorite.
Means “may Jehovah add” or “He will add.” Gen. 30:24-faith that God will add another son.
Gen. 30: 22-24- “Then God remembered Rachael, and God listened to her and opened her womb. And she conceived and bore a son, and said, ‘God has taken away my reproach.’ So she called his name Joseph, and said, ‘The Lord shall add to me another son.’ ”

Gen 37: 1-11- 17 years old,  tended sheep, gave brothers bad report. V.3- Jacob loved Joseph more than other brothers. Gave Joseph tunic of many colors. Was it a tunic of many colors? (LXX), or a longsleeved robe , or ornamented tunic as might be worn by royalty?
v.4- envy of Joseph leads to hatred from his brothers. Remember Cain.
v.6-11- dreams, the older will serve the younger. Jacob rebukes Joseph, but does not reject Joseph’s dreams out of hand.
Read v.18-28, 29-36.

Gen. 39- God with Joseph.
v.1- sold to captain of Pharaoh’s guard.
v.2-4- Potipher sees God in Joseph.
v. 2-6 (especially 6)- Joseph given highest responsibility. Potipher doesn’t bother to oversee him. There were levels in slavery in ancient world.
v. 6-10- Joseph good looking, resist temptation.
v. 11-20- being righteous leads to prison, the kings prison.
v.21-23- in Joseph’s hands, keeper did not oversee Joseph. The Lord was with him.

Gen. 40- Prisoner’s dreams.
v.7- Joseph not only trustworthy, but sensitive to others.
v. 8- presents self as God’s agent.
v. 14- Joseph wants to be remembered.
v.23- forgotten.

Gen. 41- 13 years between slavery and rise to power.
v. 1- 2 years pass.
v. 1-7- Pharaoh’s dreams, no one could interpret.
v. 9-14- Joseph remembered.
v. 16- attribute gifts to God.
v. 25-32- Joseph interprets.
v. 33-36- Joseph’s solution.
v. 37 on- God with Joseph, Joseph rises to authority again.
v.40- rule over Pharaoh’ s land, 2nd only to Pharaoh.
v.42- signant ring, Joseph spoke for Pharaoh. Fine linen, gold chain, signs of royalty, authority.
v. 43- Pharaoh displays Joseph to the people. People expected to give homage.
v. 44- Pharaoh tells Joseph he has authority over people
Zaph nath-Paaneah- “God speaks and He lives.” Joseph’s authority like a god’s. Marriage to a non- Jew, yet children part of Israel.
v. 56-57- famine over whole world, all had to approach Joseph to live.
Joseph as picture of Christ. Like the ancient world approaching Joseph to live, so we approach the Father through the Son.  As Joseph had all authority, so does Jesus.

Gen. 42
v. 4- Jacob doesn’t send Benjamin, Rachael’s son.
v. 6- bow down, beginning of dreams fulfillment, see v. 9.
v. 16- God wants Israel in Egypt, prophecy to Abraham.
v. 22- Reuben a liar.
v. 24- Joseph weeps for brothers, like Christ wept for us, “Father, forgive them, they know not what they do.” Gen. 43:30.

Gen. 43: 33-34- younger given the blessing.

Gen. 44: 14-34- now the brothers put their lives on the line in intercession. Want to please father, no longer careless concerning his wishes.

Gen. 45.
v.3- dismayed in his presence.
v. 4-7- purpose- did brothers act of own accord? God preserved for Abraham, Isaac, Jacob a posterity.
v. 22- younger favored.

Gen. 46
v. 3- the promise of a great nation.
v. 4- God’s promise he will be buried in land promised to Abraham.
v. 27- 70 in all.

Gen. 47: 13-26- Joseph gets power over all land and people. Most of treasure taken from people goes back to the people. Joseph only keeps 1/5. Priests get land allotted to them. Joseph keeps Pharaoh’s word.

Gen. 50-
v. 1-14- promise fulfilled, Jacob buried in Promised Land.
v. 15-21- brothers still fear Joseph, Joseph shows forgiveness.

v. 22-26- Joseph’s faith.

Monday, October 13, 2014

Isaac and Jacob

Here are my notes on Isaac and Jacob from my Wed. morning class taught over a year ago. The notes on Jacob will look incomplete. I remember teaching on Gen.34, but for some reason didn't make written notes.


Isaac means he laughs, the laughing one. Parents laughed at circumstances of birth, Gen. 21:6. God selected the name before he was born, Gen. 17:19. (Other examples- in OT- Ishmael, Solomon, Josiah, Cyrus, and Isaiah’s son Mahe-shal-hash-baz. In NT- John the Baptist, Jesus.)
No record of early life except circumsized at 8 days, and weaned.
At sacrifice, Isaac was not a child. Josephus thought he was 25, others think 33.
God provided the lamb, as He would with his only Son.
Most important issue, Abraham’s faith, Isaac’s obedience.
Similarities with Christ:
both had been promised, Isaac 25 years before, Jesus in Gen. 3:16. Gal. 3:16- the seed is one.
birth announcements unusual- laughter, even Mary questioned.
both named before birth.
both births miraculous.
Gen. 24- Bride for Isaac. Picture of Holy Spirit seeking out disciples for Christ. Christ the groom, the Church the bride.
v.27- servant guided by God.
v.58- Rebekah ready, willing to go as Isaac’s bride.
v. 67- Isaac took her to himself, he loved her. She comforted him in his mourning.
Gen. 25:21- pleaded, even though Isaac knew God’s promise to Abraham.
Gen. 26- God makes promise to Isaac based on Abraham’s obedience. God repeated covenant. God prospers him because he obeys God in not going down to Egypt. Prosperity makes enemies of allies.
Isaac falters in faith. Saw his father do same thing with Abimelech.
Isaac prospers, moves.
v.23-25- God repeats covenant, Isaac builds altar as a memorial. Didn’t build altar the 1st time God appeared to him, learning to express faith.
v.34- Esau brings grief.
Gen. 27- Isaac knew the older will serve the younger, but was going to bypass the promise. Isaac just wanted to eat.
What New Testament says about Isaac:
Heb. 11:20- “By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come.” (Gen. 27: 26-40).
James 2: 21-23- faith perfected by works.

Law v. Grace, Works v. Faith.


Jacob- supplanter, taking the place of another.
Gen. 25:23- two nations, older will serve the younger, that the purpose of God, according to the election will stand.
Predestination- but what kind? Not the arbitrary choosing by God, but those who follow in Jacob’s footsteps.
Gen. 25: 27-34- steals Esau’s birthright. In Haran, could sell birthright to brother.
Birthright- headship of family, double share of inheritance (Dt. 21:17)
Esau- lusted for the tangible, the here and now. Heb. 12: 16-17, we are our brother’s keeper, don’t let anyone become profane like Esau.
Gen. 25: 25-28, Gen. 26: 34-35. The blessing- Gen. 27: 27-29.
Isaac tried to bypass God’s word in blessing Esau, Rebekah schemed to get Jacob the blessing God had already told her was his. Esau cared nothing for the blessing, plotted to kill Jacob, blamed Jacob for losing his birthright. Good thing Abraham sent away all his other children.
Gen. 28: 3-4- Isaac repeats God’s covenant with Abraham. Fruitful nation, assembly of peoples, the land.
Esau- marry daughters of Ishmael, Ishmael and his descendants have no part in God’s salvation plan.
Gen. 28: 10-22- God intervenes in the natural world.
v. 13-15- God reaffirms covenant, will be with Jacob, will bring him back. Not because Jacob was righteous, but because of Abraham’s righteousness.
v.19- Was called Luz, which means separation, now called Bethel- house of God.
v.20- 21- if God be with me, bring me back, provide, THEN the Lord shall be my God. Not until then, not walking by faith yet.
Jacob, Laban, Rachael, Leah- 12 tribes of Israel.
Gen. 31: 1-3, 7-9, 24, 31, 36-42.
Gen. 32: 9-12- remind God of promises, 11-12, still fear.
v. 13-15- gifts to placate Esau.
v. 24-32- wrestle with God (Hos. 12:4)
until the break of day
Man did not prevail
Israel means struggle with God
Penial- seen God face to face, life preserved.
Gen. 33:10- Esau’s face the face of God.
Gen. 48: 12-20, 49: 8-12, by faith.
Gen. 49: 12 -20, Gen 49: 8-12- by faith.
Gen. 49: 1-7- oldest son forfeited blessing, leadership fell to Judah.


In my Wed. morning class at church, we studied the life of Abraham over a year ago. I just never got around to posting my notes till now. Notes on Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron will be posted soon. Right now we are studying the life of David.


Abram- high father, Abraham- father of many nations
In the line of Seth, in the line of Christ.
Gen. 11:31-12:1, past tense, Acts 7:2, God spoke to Abram before he went to Haran. Josh 24:2- Terah served other gods. Moon god worshipped in Ur, Haran, a flourishing caravan city.

Gen. 12:3- a command, but more than a command, a covenant-
1.     Great nation
2.     I will bless you
3.     I will make your name great
4.     You will be a blessing
5.     I will bless those who bless you
6.     I will curse those who curse you
7.     All peoples will be blessed through you.
12:4- Abram responded in faith by answering a calling, being a pilgrim.
12:7- 1st promise from God that Israel will possess Canaan
 Built an altar, chronicle history with God
Journey of faith-learn to obey, in Egypt-12: 10-20, restoration-13:3-4
Lot chooses to separate, not be a pilgrim- 13: 10-11- like Eve- sees with eyes of human common sense-not with eyes of faith , Sodom wicked-13:12-13.   
13: 14-17- God gives promise of the land in greater detail once Abram is no longer entangled with Lot.
We are Lot-
2Pet. 2:7-8- “…delivered righteous Lot, who was oppressed by the filthy conduct of the wicked (for that righteous man, dwelling among them, tormented his righteous soul from day to day by seeing and hearing their lawless deeds…)”
Gen. 14:1-17- Lot’s capture and rescue by Abram. King of Sodom wants to do Abram homage. v. 18-20- King of Salem (peace), Melchizedek, blesses Abram, Heb.7- the lesser is blessed by the greater. Abram acknowledges his superior by tithing to Him. Was this meeting directed by God to remind Abram that it was God who won the battle, and not Abram himself? v. 21-24- Abram refuses to take goods, wanted the world to see that it was God who prospered him.
Gen.15:1- shield, great reward
2-4- what was important to one who lived at that time
5. promise of descendants
6. believed in God, counted as righteousness-
reckon- to think, to reckon, put together, calculate, imagine, impute, to lay one’s thoughts together, to form a judgment, to produce something in the mind. A consideration of many factors to produce a conclusion. God  added all that Abram’s belief about Him meant to Him and reckoned Abram righteous. See New Testament passages on Abraham quoted below.
7.     Promise based on God’s prior actions. God’s actions showed we was to be trusted.

9-11- The sacrifice. Covenant made with blood.

v.17- God humbled Himself as if He was the inferior party, Hittite Suzeraign Covenant- inferior walked through, “May the gods do to me (and more also) as I have done to these animals if I do not fulfill the terms of  this covenant!” Prefigure Christ. Smoking oven, burning torch a figure of speech, one noun modifies the other into one single flame.

v.13-14- prophesy of  slavery in Egypt.

Gen. 16:1-4-  Hagar and Ishmael- trying to carry out God’s plan man’s way.
See Rom. 4:19-22 below, Abram never wavered in faith.
v.4- Hagar becomes prideful, looks down on barren Sarai
v.5- Sarai blames Abram for her idea. When we sin, we often blame others.
v.6- Abram weak, lets Sarai be harsh with Hagar.
v. 7-9- Even though Hagar does not have part in God’s plan of salvation, He still hears her in her distress.
v. 10-12- given promises for her descendants, Ishmael father of the Arab people.
v.13- 1st time God given a name by man- “You are the God who sees” –different from all other gods.

Gen. 17:1- walk before Me, and be blameless, be in my presence, after all, God is “You are the God who sees.” Be in God’s presence.
v.2-8- Covenant:
v.2- God will make covenant, already proven He can be trusted to keep covenant.
v.2, 4-  Will multiply Abram’s descendants.
v. 5- name change from Abram to Abraham. To call oneself the father of many nations is an act of faith in the God who made the covenant.
v.6- Kings will come from Abraham, David, the royal line, Christ.
v.7- covenant not just with Abraham, but with his descendants- to be God to them.
v.8- Israel given the land of Canaan.
v. 9-14- covenant to be kept, the sign is circumcision.
v.15-22- Sarai to Sarah (princess).  The promise is through Isaac, through faith.

Gen. 18: 1-8- Even though Abraham a great man, he still  follows customs of hospitality.
v.9-15- God had never done such a thing in human history, so it was understandable that Sarah reacted as she did. God showed He was wthe one who sees, v. 15.
v.16-19- God has chosen Abraham to pass on holiness down through the generations. God decides this honor entitles Abraham to know what He is about to do.
v.20-21- God a different God, knows the affairs of men, hears of injustice when those who suffer cry to Him, God is a God of justice.
v.22-25- there is a standard of right and wrong. By this we know that God is good, because He lives by this standard. He always does because in Him there is no sin. Pagan gods follow no such standard, for they are just super-sized humanity.
v.22-33- God is never angry or weary with our continued intercession.

Gen.19:12-22- Lot righteous, but not completely removed from unholy surroundings. Did he marry a pagan? Did he allow his daughters to do so? His entire family, besides him, was unspiritual. Son-in-laws thought he was joking about judgment. He had to be dragged out of Sodom. He was saved through Abraham’s intercession. Without it, Lot would have perished in the judgment.
v.30-38- Lot’s folly in the way he raised family, not completely separating from paganism, caused daughters to think like pagans, afflict Israel with descendants, Moab and Ammon, which were conceived through unrighteousness. Passed on family character through the generations.

Gen. 21:1-4- God did as He had spoken, given Abraham and Sarah a son in their old age. Abraham obedient in circumcising Isaac at 8 days old.
v.8-21- bond woman and son cast out.  Even though have no part in God’s plan of salvation, even though Ishmael mistreated Isaac, God saw and heard Hagar’s anguish and rescued them.
v.22-34- Abimelech saw God was with Abraham, reasoned that God would avenge him against his enemies (see Gen. 20). Knew the value of a covenant, knew if God was with Abraham, Abraham would honor covenant. Abraham planted Tamarask tree is a memorial. Worshipped God there.

Gen. 22- sacrifice of Isaac.
v.12- “…now I know…” God says “I have experienced Abraham’s fear of me.” See Heb. 11:17-19 below.
v.15-18- because Abraham did not withhold only son, God not only repeated earlier promises, not only stated that many nations would come from him, but all nations would be blessed through him because of his faith.
Gen. 25: 1-6- protect Isaac, his seed, from pagan influence, contamination.

New Testament on Abraham:
Jn. 8: 33-59- Only those who live by faith are Abraham’s true descendants.
Rom. 4: 1-4-saved through faith.
              9-12- Father of all who believe.
              See also v.13-25 and Rom 9: 6-8, Gal. 3:29, James 2:21-26.

Hebrews 11:17-19- “By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises offered up his only begotten son of whom it was said, ‘In Isaac your seed shall be called,’ concluding that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead, from which he also received him in a figurative sense.”

Rom. 4:19-22- “And not being weak in faith, he did not consider his own body already dead (since he was about a hundred years old) and the deadness of Sarah’s womb. He did not waiver at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God, and being fully convinced that what He had promised He was also able to perform. And therefore, ‘it was accounted to him for righteousness.’ ”

Saturday, September 27, 2014

The Kingdom of God: A Sermon

My pastor was taken to the hospital Saturday evening a week ago. I was asked to give the sermon Sunday morning. Fortunately, I keep a supply of old sermons handy in such cases. My subject was the kingdom of God. It was similar to this 2007 blog post from my main blog, :

Continue to pray for my pastor; she is out of the hospital, but the doctors are not sure what is wrong with her. Pray for her husband as well. He and she are co-pastors of the church where I worship.

Saturday, September 13, 2014

I Killed A Bear!

No, not me. David. King David that is. He killed a lion and a bear while guarding his father's sheep. David recounted the story to King Saul in 1Sam. 17:34-37. He told Saul this to explain his confidence that God would give David victory over Goliath the Philistine. In doing so, David demonstrated that faith in God develops as one develops a history with God. Faith is not merely belief. Faith is defined as belief, trust, and loyalty to someone or something. David believed God would deliver him from the lion and the bear. He lived his life in those moments in the confidence that God would do so. When such confidence is rewarded, it develops into trust. Because God delivered David from the lion and the bear, he trusted God to triumph over Goliath. This trust caused David to place his loyalty in God alone. It was God's name David wanted to see vindicated when Goliath blasphemed God and insulted God's people. It was from David's words that I came up with the title of my 8/31/14 Sunday morning sermon, "I Killed a Bear!"

I began with a short introduction giving the historical context to 1Sam. 17. Then the chapter was examined in detail from verses 1 through 37. Here are the notes for that portion of the sermon, which came from the Wednesday morning class I teach at church:

1Sam. 17:1- Socoh, 15 miles west of Bethlehem, in Judah, and belonging to tribe of Judah.
v4- champion- middle man, one army chooses warrior to do battle with chosen warrior from opposing army, prevent great loss of life. The army of the losing warrior serves the victorious army. Greek practice. Contest among the gods.
9ft., 9 inches.
v.5- clothed with scaled body armor, 126 lbs.
v. 7- 15-16 lbs.
Who was Goliath? An Anakite. These were the people Joshua and the spies saw in the promised land when they reported that the Israelites were like grasshoppers compared to them. Joshua mostly destroyed them, Josh. 11:21-22. Survivors settled in Gath, where Goliath was from.
v.11- Tall Saul afraid. Israel’s trust in human king had failed. Lack of faith in covenant promises.
v. 15-20- David still subject to parents, even though plays for the king, like Christ being subject to his parents.
v. 25- Israelites focused on reward.
v. 26- David focused on insult to God’s honor, sets him apart from Saul, every one else.
v.28- When a righteous person defies the enemy, fearful people turn on them. Like Jonathan before the Philistines. Also, Eliab, brothers, mad that they were not chosen,
v. 31- so they reported him to Saul. (To see him punished?)
v. 32- No arrogance, but assures Saul not to lose heart.
v. 36- No insult to fearful soldiers, called them the armies of the living God, whom Goliath defies.

v. 37- A HISTORY WITH GOD- David depends on God, not his own abilities.

I then quickly looked at Ps. 23, showing that only one who had such a history with God could write it. Then non-faith was illustrated through quickly looking at some biblical passages: relying on own righteousness (Ezk. 33:13), on own strength (Hos. 10:13), on leaders (Ps.118: 8-9), on riches (Jer. 49:4), Prov. 3:5-6.
Then a quick look was given at what faith produces in us: confession (Acts 19:18), forgiveness (Acts 10:43), grace (Acts 15:11), healing (Acts 14:9), the receiving of the Holy Spirit (Eph. 1:13), justification (Acts 13:38-39), purification (Acts 15:9), sanctification (Acts 26:18), hope (Ps. 33:20-22). While awaiting the return of Jesus Christ, faith causes us to live lives of holiness now, as if Christ has already returned. This last point was made by reading Heb.11: 24-26 and 2Pet. 3:10-13.

Monday, July 7, 2014

Samuel and Saul

Since March, we have been studying the lives of Samuel and Saul in our Wednesday morning class. The notes are skeletal, but the class allows everyone to participate. Anyone can ask a question or comment anytime. Also remember that this blog is just a bare record of my ministry activities.


1Sam 1:1- Elkanah, called an Ephriamite, really a Levite.
1:2- Hannah, means gracious. Barren. 2nd marriage not sanctioned by God.
1:3- Lord of Hosts- infinite resources, power with which God acts for His people. God’s sovereignty over all powers in the universe. Also translated “The Lord Almighty.” 1st use of word in Old Testament here.
Feast of Tabernacles- commemorate God’s protection of Israel during desert journey and God’s blessing over the year’s crops.
Shiloh- central sanctuary, where ark located. Jerusalem not yet royal city.
v. 4-5- Hannah given a double portion, as if she had a son. Elkanah loved her, did not blame her for barreness.
v. 6-8- family interaction: Hannah taunted, Elkanah weak, tries to console her, but he doen’t restrain the mother of his children.
v. 10- bitterness of soul, prayed, didn’t wait to change attitude, “get right”, before approaching God. See v. 16.
v.11- again, Lord of Hosts. Faith that the Lord is willing even in the midst of anguish. No hating or accusing God, or turning away from God because of affliction. Called herself God’s maidservant.
“remember me”- not just recall, but God going into action on her behalf.
Razor- Nazorite vow, Num. 6:18-separate unto God for a specified time when the hair shall remain uncut. Long hair being symbol of dedication to the Lord’s service, usually not for life. A vow that God required of Sampson.
v.16- wicked (daughter of Belial): good for nothing, name given to Eli’s sons in 2:12.
v.19- Lord remembered, did not forget, but acted in her behalf.
v. 20- Samuel: asked of, appointed by God. “…because I have asked for him from the Lord.”
v. 24- weaned, 2 or 3 years.
v. 28- lent means given unconditionally in dedication to the Lord.

2:11- assisted Eli.
2:12- corrupt, didn’t know the Lord, didn’t fear or obey Him. Sons of  Belial, see 1:16.
v. 13-15- fat was to be burned. The Lord was to receive His portion 1st. Meat taken before fully cooked. Free will offering taken by force. Dt. 18: 1-5. Boiling is only form of cooking mentioned for priests. Only roasting mentioned- Passover lamb.
v. 18-26- Eli- some spirituality, but loved sons more than God, see v. 29. (See Mt. 10: 37-39).
Women- like Canaanite temple prostitutes.
The Lord was determined to put them to death. The curse, v. 27-36.
Read Num. 6:1-8- Nazorite vow. V. 4- not necessarily permanent. Seperated to the Lord. No strong drink. No razor. Long hair a reproach to a man, willing to be reproached for the Lord’s sake. No contact with dead body, even family members. If this is violated, he can atone for this and begin service again, v. 9-12. Absolute purity of life.
3:1- No widespread revelation, word from God rare. In Judges, Holy Spirit mentioned less and less.
3:7- Samuel didn’t know the Lord yet.
v. 8- Eli not totally without spiritual perception.
v.10- Judgment revealed to Samuel. Samuel to continue serving Eli, but knows not to emulate Eli’s sons.
V. 14- no atonement for house of Eli, who polluted the sacrifice. Not offered in faith, but as a ritual.
v.18-19- Eli accepts judgment, Samuel established as prophet. No move to kill Samuel as Solomon tried to kill Jeroboam.
Prophet- “a spokesman for God, a seer, a watchman.” Not just foretell future. Moses a prophet, Dt. 18:15, but Samuel started prophetic office. Trained prophets. His school of prophets made the prophets a force in Israel.

4: 1-5- Where did we see the Ark carried into battle, and thenpeople shouting before they went into battle? The battle of Jericho. Difference. In these verses, the Ark is being used as a magical object by an unholy people with unholy leaders who did not consult God or consecrate themselves.
4:18- Eli more concerned about the Ark than his sons.
4:19-22- God was the glory of Israel, but Phinehas’ wife looked upon the ark as well as the priestly family as the source of glory.

7:2-17- Samuel in different roles at same time, foreshadow roles of Christ, roles of New Testament believers:
v.3- proclaims as a prophet.
v. 5- prays as a priest.
6.- Judges.
9-10- sacrifices as a priest.
12 – prophet.
15-16- judge.
17- judge and priest.
Our focus on Samuel ends, but as his life is intertwined with Saul’s and David’s life, we are not done with him yet.   


Saul: “asked for, demanded.”
1st time in this study-deal with character who came to a bad end.
Son of Kish, a Benjamite, youngest of Jacob. Out of this tribe came 2 Sauls, the king and Saul who became Paul. Nothing else known of the family.
1Sam. 8: 1-4- Samuel’s sons didn’t follow Samuel’s ways, took bribes and perverted justice, violated the Law, God said He would judge Israel for these things. Samuel didn’t stop them. Human relationships and sin.
v.5- Elders gave stated reason, but real reason apparent later on, see v. 20.
v.6- Samuel displeased. Did God intend Israel to have a king? Gen:49:10- a chosen dynasty out of the tribe of Judah. [But see Dt. 17:14-20-
v.14- reason Israel will want a king.
v.15- God will choose king, a native Israelite, prevent pagan idolatry.
v.16- do not rely on own strength, fight battles in a worldly way.
v.17- idolatry=self enrichment, oppression of poor.
v.18- 19- write the book of the Law, learn to fear God, follow Law.
v.20- Law prevents heart from engaging in self exaltation. Prolong a king’s days. Righteousness prolongs life. Rely on God, not on self, which leads to fear.]
God knew people would want a king, so He brings about His will in a bad situation by changing the role of a king in Israel. He was not taken by surprise.
1Sam. 8:7-9- God is sovereign. Warns Israel, knows they will not heed warning, will not have God reign over them, why they prefer idolatry, because idols can be controlled.
v. 10-18- Samuel describes Canaanite kings, the ones Israel wants to emulate.
v.11-  draft sons for his wars, his own glory.
v. 12- draft sons, organize them to work in the king’s fields, vineyards.
v. 13- take daughters too,what protection will they have.
v. 14- take your property, give to his cronies.
v. 15-17- take the fruit of your labor and your laborers, be his servant.
v. 18-God will not heed Israel’s cries, Israel asked for a king.
v.9-20- Israel wanted to be like pagan nations.

Chapter 9:2- Saul, handsome, tall, looked like a king.
v. 7-9- seer=prophet, considered same thing, Saul still steeped in pagan ways of worship, buy a prophecy. Coming out of period of the Judges.
v. 15-17- God will use Saul, knows Saul will fail him later.
v. 18- didn’t know who Samuel was, not interested in spiritual things. 

1Sam. 10:1- anointing- monarchy given same importance as priesthood.
v.2-6- Saul told what to do, become different man.
v.9-10- prophesied
v.14- told uncle nothing about what Samuel had said.
v. 19- to want to be like the world is to reject God. God had delivered them, but Israel did not trust God to deliver them in the future, wanted a king to deliver them.
v. 22-23- hid self even after prophecies fulfilled, given prophesies himself, made new man.
v. 24- refer to his appearance
v.25- how kings are to relate to the people, the Law, and the covenant.
v.26-27- even though Saul will fail God, at that time he is God’s chosen, anointed king. To oppose him is to oppose God. Why David did not kill him when he had the chance.

1Sam. 11:1- Ammonite, descendant of Lot.
Want similar covenant used by God with Abraham, Gen. 15.
v.2- humiliation, destroy capacity of archers.
v. 6-Spirit of the Lord/anger aroused.
v.13- Saul exercises self control, see 10:26-27. Proved he was God’s man.
v.14- renew, reaffirm kingship, the king on relationship to the Law, the covenant.
v.15- peace offerings represent peace between the Lord and His people when His people live according to the covenant.

1st Sam. 12: 1-5- Samuel judged on how he treated the people.
v. 6-12- The Lord’s righteous acts, Israel could trust in him. Remember opening verses of Ex. 19, 20.
v. 13- obey the king God chooses. God integrating kingship into life of Israel, making good out of a bad situation caused by Israel’s sin, just like what he did with the Gibeonites.
v. 16-18- wheat harvest, not the right time for rain.
A great sin to reject God’s protection, to want to give alligience to a king instead of God alone. Lack of faith=rejecting God.
v.19-25- God will bless the people if they repent and serve Him, conditional, see v. 25.
v. 23- sin against the Lord if do not pray for the people. People not forsaken, capable of being in right relationship.

1st Sam. 13: 8-12- Saul was rash, would not wait, did not trust the Lord.
v. 13- word of Samuel is word of the Lord, not to act independently of the priesthood, the Law.
v.14- will not be succeeded by sons.
v. 19-23- Superiority in metallurgy, from contact with Hittites, area around Agean sea, migrate around 1,200 B.C.

1st Sam. 14: 1-14- Jonathan defeats the Philistines.
  v.3- Member of Eli’s family wearing Ephod- why did Saul allow this?
  v. 4- Most improbable route.
  v.6- Jonathan has faith in God.
v.19- Saul doesn’t want to wait to seek God.
v. 21- Some Israelites went over to the Philistines.
v. 23- The Lord saved Israel.
v.24- Saul focused on Saul, acts like he was the victor, cared nothing for the soldiers who had fought.
v. 27, 29-30- Jonathan cares for soldiers/God’s cause. Rightly blames father for Israel’s troubles.
v. 32- Saul’s order caused sin, the eating of blood.
v. 35- 1st time Saul builds altar to the Lord, lack of interest in spiritual things, lack of gratitude for what God has done for him, Israel.
v. 37-38- God did not answer Saul, blamed someone else for God not answering. Either because he is spiritually blind, or really knows he was to blame, so wants to shift public blame to someone else.
v. 44-45- Saul would make God look cruel, a God of legalistic religion. Saul would make his rash oath seem like a point of honor with God. (Like the Babylonia rule that a king cannot rescind a decree for fear the king would look weak and foolish. Remember also Moses and the striking of the rock-misrepresented God, forbidden from entering the promise land.) Soldiers knew better and were not afraid of the king.
v. 47- Saul established sovereignty over Israel.

1st Sam. 15: 1- Saul reminded that God spoke through Samuel, used Samuel to anoint Saul king, so he was to heed God’s word.
v. 2- Amalekites, descendants of Esau, blood relatives of Israel, fought Israel, would not let Israel pass through their land into the promised land, where Moses’ arms were held up. They surely knew the promise. Why did the Lord wait so long to punish this nation. Was it because of the Amalekite king’s cruelty. See v. 33.
3. Destroy all, including the king.
v. 6- Moses’ father- in- law a Kenite.
v. 9- Saul, Israel disobeys, takes the good stuff, spares the king.
v. 10-11- The Lord sorry He had made Saul king, Saul had turned his back on the Lord. God knew He would.
v. 12- Saul sets up a monument to himself.
v. 15- keep sheep to enhance selves economically, so won’t have to sacrifice own sheep. “The Lord your God…”
v. 20-21- blame the people, justify himself, Adam/Eve blamed each other.
v.22- to obey is better than sacrifice- religious form over heart response to God, faith is better than religious form. Saul thinks God is only concerned with religious rites, like pagans. Never tried to not think like a pagan.
v. 23- rebellion is like witch craft. Pagan religion is a religion of the self, do certain things, manipulate the gods. Using own strength to bring about what you want. A rebel is one who casts off authority and tries to take matters in his own hands. Saul eventually turns to witch craft in private. Thinks God does not see.
Saul is rejected as king.
v. 24-31- Saul more concerned about his reputation, how he appears before the people.  V. 28- kingdom will be given to another.
Reread 14: 47, see 16:14- Saul was king over all Israel, but the Spirit had left him, and from the Lord tormented him. Saul reached the point where he was too far from God, like Pharaoh, like King Herod.
Not done with Saul. Like Samuel, his life is closely linked to David, who will now be our focus.