David: means “well beloved.”
Davidic covenant a sure prophecy of Christ:
Gen. 3:15- enmity between serpent and woman’s seed. A promise of a race in Adam.
Gen 22:18 (To Abraham after his obedience in intending to sacrifice Isaac)- “In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice.”
Gen. 49:10 (Jacob to Judah)- “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from beneath his feet, until Shiloh comes, and unto him shall be the obedience of the people.”
Read Is. 11:10, Rom. 15:12, Rev. 5:5, 22:16.
Matthew’s gospel begins with genealogy to prove Jesus was descended from David, Abraham.
2Sam. 7: 16- “And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne will be established forever.”
The faithfulness of God- 20 kings in Northern, Southern kingdom. David’s kingdom, 31/2 centuries, the northern kingdom, 2 centuries. North, 9 different dynasties. Constant overthrow. Southern kingdom lasts until Babylonian exile.
The Psalms celebrate the promises God gave to David and his descendants. Royal psalms- record the hopes for another king like David. Centers on king who meets universal opposition, is victorious, establishes a righteous rule from Zion over the nations. His kingdom is peaceful, prosperous, everlasting, and faithful to the Lord. Friend to the poor, enemy of the oppressor, heir to the promises of David, divine- Ps. 45:6- Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of your kingdom.”
In 1 and 2Sam.- recurring theme, the Lord’s anointed. Messiah means “anointed one” (Christ is the Greek translation). Israel’s desire for Messiah grows out of belief that a righteous king like David will rule. The figure of Messiah is an integral part of belief that Israel will rule the nations.
1Sam. 13:14- man after God’s own heart. Even though Saul’s sins don’t appear as great as David’s, Saul only cared about what people thought of him. David faced Goliath alone, while Saul cowered in his tent. David loved God with his whole heart.
Writers of the New Testament declare Jesus to be the righteous king of Israel. Point to his descent from David, even the demons see him as the Son of David, Israel’s messiah.
David recorded his struggles in the Psalms, the prayer book of Israel, the prayer book which taught Jesus to pray.
1Sam. 16:1- Jesse grandson of Ruth and Boaz.
v.2- Samuel must go through Gibeah where Saul lives, to get to Bethlehem. Saul knows God has deposed him as king. Will be suspicious of any movement of Samuel, knowing Samuel will anoint Saul’s replacement.
v. 2, 4- Samuel is God’s man, always travels with a purpose, Bethlehem wonders if he comes in capacity as Judge.
v.5- sanctify self, don’t go into God’s presence, make sacrifice, irreverently.
v.7- a theme in Old Testament, Abel, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, now David, not the eldest- God not culturally bound, God looks at the heart.
v.11- David, type of Christ, shepherd, King as shepherd.
v.12- good looking, about 15.
v.13.- anointed in midst of brothers, publically show God’s favor on him. 1st of 3 annointings- he will be anointed as king of Judah, then king over all of Israel.
v. 16, 23- worship as spiritual warfare. (Luther- “If can’t pray, sing.”) Saul not yet under sentence of death. God gives him opportunity to repent when David’s music puts Saul in right mind. But Saul never does.
v. 18- not yet fought a battle, refer to killing lion, bear in chapter 17.
David as shepherd and warrior- Ps. 78: 71-72- “He chose David his servant and took him from the sheep pens; from tending sheep He brought him to be the shepherd of His people Jacob, of Israel His inheritance. And David shepherded them with integrity of heart; with skillful hands he led them.” Shepherd a despised profession.
1Sam. 17:1- Socoh, 15 miles west of Bethlehem, in Judah, and belonging to tribe of Judah.
v4- champion- middle man, one army chooses warrior to do battle with chosen warrior from opposing army, prevent great loss of life. The army of the losing warrior serves the victorious army. Greek practice. Contest among the gods.
9ft., 9 inches.
v.5- clothed with scaled body armor, 126 lbs.
v. 7- 15-16 lbs.
Who was Goliath? An Anakite. These were the people Joshua and the spies saw in the promised land when they reported that the Israelites were like grasshoppers compared to them. Joshua mostly destroyed them, Josh. 11:21-22. Survivors settled in Gath, where Goliath was from.
v.11- Tall Saul afraid. Israel’s trust in human king had failed. Lack of faith in covenant promises.
v. 15-20- David still subject to parents, even though plays for the king, like Christ being subject to his parents.
v. 25- Israelites focused on reward.
v. 26- David focused on insult to God’s honor, sets him apart from Saul, every one else.
v.28- When a righteous person defies the enemy, fearful people turn on them. Like Jonathan before the Philistines. Also, Eliab, brothers, mad that they were not chosen,
v. 31- so they reported him to Saul. (To see him punished?)
v. 32- No arrogance, but assures Saul not to lose heart.
v. 36- No insult to fearful soldiers, called them the armies of the living God, whom Goliath defies.
v. 37- A HISTORY WITH GOD- David depends on God, not his own abilities.
v. 38-39- Saul’s armor too big for David, Saul is much taller.
v. 40- no sword or spear. Sling shot is accurate, deadly weapon of war. Sends projectiles 100 miles/hr. See Judges 20:16.
v. 42-44- Goliath disdains David, insulted that he was the best Israel could put forward, thinks David will lose and will be the only death because Israel will serve the winner.
v. 45-47- Man’s weapons will not prevail. David speaks in God’s name, who backs up His Covenant promises. David’s strength is in his reliance on God. “Lord of Hosts”- infinite power, resources, which God brings to bear on Israel’s behalf. First used by Hannah in 1st Sam 1. David tells Goliath that it is all Israel he has defied, David has faith that ALL the Philistines will be food for the birds.
A witness to fearful Israel, so that the earth will know that there is a God in Israel. Why God chose Israel.
v. 55-58- as a musician, family background isn’t as important. As a warrior leading Saul’s army, background more important.
v. 51- Philistines saw this as the judgment of the gods. If they had kept Goliath’s oath, see v. 4, they could have been spared. But they fled.
v. 54- Jerusalem not yet under Israel’s control. Not sure what David did. Display Goliath’s head to enemies, then, or later? Goliath’s sword later given to the priest to signify God gave the victory.See chapter 21.
1Sam.18:3-4-authority of succession given to David from Jonathan
v5,14,15,30-David behaved wisely, like Joseph, the Lord was with him.
v.7- The womens’ song conformed to Hebrew poetry, but Saul misread the content of their song.
V10- Hebrew root word sometimes used for uncontrolled, ecstatic behavior.
v.12- The Lord was with David, but left Saul.
v.13,17- hope David is killed in battle. Also v.21,25.
v.17- offer of marriage only a ploy, appear on David’s side, while trying to get him killed. See v. 21. David entitled to eldest daughter because of promise of Saul to the one who killed Goliath, see 17:25. Promise not kept. New promise made on condition of further military service, see v.25. To send David away will make kingdom talk. Kingdom probably heard about the spear throwing incidents.
v.18- see v.24, David’s family not rich.
v.21- Saul thinks David will put self in jeopardy to win Michal.
v.28- Despite this, Saul does not repent, does not accept lot, but tries to thwart God’s known will. Like King Herod.
By this time, seeing God’s favor on David, Saul now knows God has chosen David to be king.
1Sam. 19:1- at 1st, Saul tried to hide his desire to kill David. After failing to do so, he is now desperate, can’t hide murderous designs.
v.6- 7- Saul swears, but will not keep oath, violation of God’s Law. David too king at his word, won’t declare the king a liar.
v.9-10- Saul breaks oath, David flees, trust is over.
v.17- Michal lies to save David, herself, uses pagan idol. What is that doing there? Saul, family never completely left paganism.
v.18-19- David seeks protection of Israel’s judge, prophet, priest. Ramah an hours walk away. By publically taking David to Naioth, giving David legitimacy, God’s stamp of approval. What he denied Saul after Saul’s disobedience.
v. 20- Saul no longer respects Samuel’s authority, God’s anointing of David, will seek to take David, kill him.
v.20-21- School of Prophets stronger than king. Holy Spirit is dominant. See Jn. 18:4-7. Saul doesn’t learn lesson.
v.23-24- Holy Spirit’s presence upon an unspiritual man. Saul thinks he will impress Samuel, God , by such an act. Isaiah was told by God to go naked for a while. People think Saul is crazy, see 1Sam. 10:12.
Psalm 59- written by David when Saul sent soldiers to kill him at his house. A prayer of deliverance, faith in God as fortress.
v.1-2- A cry of deliverance, “protect me, deliver me”- literally- “Raise me to a high, secure place.”
v. 3- enemies use lies slander, Mt. 5; 21-22, David protests his innocence, pleads with God to judge those who wrong him. Why? See v. 13.
v.5- Lord of Hosts- God is sovereign, all His resources brought to bear upon the cause of His people. Title 1st used by Hannah, then David against Goliath. Attack on david is attack on Israel by the nations, he is God’s anointed. Is this against the spirit of Jesus? No. An appeal to God that David’s enemies be judged according to God’s Law, punishment fit the crime, by God, not by David himself.
v.6-8- Those who have no faith in God live like dogs, like Esau.
v.11,13- God in Israel seen to be God, David’s ultimate motive.
v.10-13- punish enemies in a way the people will not forget.
Trust, but act, sneaked out of own house, like Paul being let out of Damascus.
1Sam. 20:5- New Moon, a day of rest at the end of the month. Saul made it a 3 day feast.
v.12- Jonathan makes oath of loyalty to david, not to his father.
v.13- Jonathan expects David to be king.
v.14-15- vow to be merciful to Jonathan and his descendants. Common practice to kill all rivals and their families who could be claimants to the throne.
v. 16-even Saul, his father.
v.31- Saul thinks he can prevent God’s will.
1Sam. 21:2- why did David lie?did he want to protect priests from charge of complicity in David’s escape.
v.6- shew bread-12 giant loaves of bread made of wheat flour placed before the Lord, only priests could eat. Ahimelech, grandson of Eli. See Mt. 12:1-8.
v.10-11- Gath, where Goliath was from. The Philistines haven’t forgot that David had killed Goliath.
v.12-14- Trust in God, but act crazy. Ancient world regarded insanity as an ill omen from the gods. The insane were not harmed, less the god’s would be provoked. Ps. 56.
1Sam. 22:1- Abdullum, 20 miles S.W. of Jerusalem.
David’s whole family in danger, they no longer disdain him.
v.2- wasn’t just people who were discontented, but David showed himself to be a champion of the downtrodden. 400 men, core of future army.
v.3- Great grandmother Ruth, a Moabite woman. Also, Saul was the Moabite king’s enemy. David knows God has anointed him, trusts God will deliver him, but does not know the future in detail.
v.5- prophet Gad- one of Samuel’s prophets. Tells David God wants him to go against what common sense would dictate. Will meet Gad later. (Assisted David in arranging Temple services [worship with theological, spiritual content], wrote history of David’s reign [Source of Old Testament account of David’s reign], rebuked david over cencus.)
7. Saul surrounded by members of own tribe. Can’t trust anyone else, lost respect of the people. Saul asks, Who can give you favors? Appeals not to God’s anointing him as king, but to base self-interest. Acts the way Samuel prophesied, rules as a pagan ruler, takes the peoples’ property, gives to own men. See 1Sam8:16-18.
v.8- Saul no longer trusts his own servants, his own people, his own son. This will make everyone around him fearful, asking themselves, will he turn on us as he turned on David? Doesn’t honor the covenant between David and his son.
v.9- Edomites descendants of Esau, will later join Babylonians in destroying Jerusalem.
v.13- accuse priest of inquiring of the Lord for David. Proof of delusional mindset, thinks he can thwart God’s known will.
v.15- lied to save own life?
v.17- Saul now completely gone. Will kill priests. Servants know it is better to endure the king’s wrath than God’s wrath. King kills his own people he swore to protect. Can only execute people according to God’s Law, 2 or 3 witnesses. Doeg was only 1.
v.18- wear the linen ephod, sign you spoke for God.
Priests were Eli’s descendants, the curse, none of the young men of the family will grow old in the priesthood. God’s used Saul to carry out prophecy. They were spiritual enough to risk life in support of David. If obeyed God fully, would not have served as priests.
v.22- there will always be consequences for those associated with righteous persons, like Herod killing Bethlehem’s children.
v.23- David sure God will deliver, influence others to act on this belief. Faith is acting in the knowledge we are in God’s hands.
Psalm 142- written while in cave. Cry out in distress, faith strengthened.
Chapter 23:1- Threshing floors not well guarded. Philistines would leave farmers without food or seed grain.
v.2,4- David inquires of the Lord before he makes a move. No pride at being the anointed one. Through Abiathar the priest, David not going to take over priestly duties as Saul did. Joshua shared authority with Eleazar the priest, Aaron’s son.
v.3- David’s men have to learn to trust God.
v. 6- Ephod, signified that one spoke for God.
v. 9-13- dialogue with God. God knows all contingencies. Knows townsmen will deliver David/David’s men to Saul, but David flees. No to Open Theism. #of Davids men grows by 200.
7. Saul won’t march against the Philistines, but will go to Kelia, destroy it if necessary, to get David.
v. 14- inaccessible.
v.16- risks own life to strengthen David.
v.17- Jonathan knows David will be king. Thinks he will serve under David. Willing to be subordinate. Last meeting between the two.
v. 18- again made a covenant.
v.19- Ziphites willing to betray David, seek Saul’s favor, keep Saul from punishing them for harboring David.
v. 21- Saul’s words delusional.
Ps. 54 written by David in response to Ziphite betrayal.
v. 26- Saul on one side of mountain, David on the other.
v.29- Place filled with caves where one could hide.
1Sam.26:1-5- Saul still pursuing David even after declared to Davvid that David will be king.
v.6- Saul’s spear, see v.7
Abishai- David’s relative, son of older sister.
v. 8- some think circumstances are indicators of God’s will
v.9-10- whatever way God chooses, David knows Saul will die and he, David, will be king.
v.12- God wanted Israel to know what kind of king David will be, merciful to king and soldiers.
v.19- if the Lord is stirring up Saul, if David had sinned, let the Lord accept a sin offering from David, without Saul’s interference. To be driven out of Israel is to be excluded from fellowship with God’s people.
v. 25- David and Saul never meet again.
1Sam.27:1- David wavers in faith.
v.2- When David went to Gath before, Philistines didn’t know Saul was pursuing David. Now, everyone knows David is fleeing Saul. Saul is the enemy of the Philistines, so Achish thinks David might become Achish’s ally.
v.4- Saul sees no reason to pursue.
v.5-7- David gets a base of action.
v.6- “…the kings of Judah” , date 1Sam. Written, after kingdom divided into Judah, Israel.
v.8-12- raid non-Israelite lands, tell Achish he is raiding Israel, kill all to keep Achish from finding out the truth. Achish gains confidence that Israel hates David.
1Sam.28:1- Achish tells David he will go into battle against his own people, Achish thinks David already has done so.
v.2- David gives ambiguous reply, Achish shows confidence against David.
v.3- what a king of Israel was supposed to do, Lev.19:26. Mediums were to be put o death.
v.4- Philistines threaten to divide kingdom in half.
v.6- Saul had disobeyed, turned his back on God, had no faith that the Lord would answer him by legitimate means, he didn’t have the Ephod, he had killed all but one of the priests from Nob.
v.7- mediums- deal with the spirits of the dead, ancestral spirits.
v. 8- disguise self, doesn’t want this to be known.
v.10- swears by the Lord to a pagan medium, deceive self, rationalize sin. Another rash oath.
v.12- 3 interpretations- Samuel a fake perpetrated by medium, a demon, or real thing. 3rd option is answer, she screamed. God is sovereign.
v.14- A mantle (NKJV) is a robe.
Saul bows down, thinks this will impress Samuel.
v.15- can you imagine being brought back to earth like this? Saul thinks Samuel will sympathize.
v.16- when you turn your back on the Lord, He becomes your enemy.
v.17- see 1Sam. 15: 26-28.
v.18- took what the Lord devoted to destruction, spared Agag, Saul only cared about appearences when Samuel told Saul God was removing him.
v.19- Saul’s army will be captured, Saul, sons killed, had every opportunity to repent, now under sentence of death.
v.20-25- medium wants Saul to eat, perhaps trying to buy Saul’s good will? After all, Saul went to her to hear what he wanted to hear, but heard the opposite. Maybe she thought Saul would have her killed for that?
Maybe Saul hoped fasting would impress God? If so, his resolve didn’t last long.
1Sam.29: The Lord intervenes to keep David from fighting his own people.
v.1- Aphek, where the Philistines captured the ark.
v.2- leaders of the 5 main Philistine cities.
v.3- David’s tactics, see chapter 27:10-12.
v.8- pretends disappointment
ambiguous answer- does he mean Achish, Saul, or the Lord?
1Sam. 30: 1- Amalekites- fought Israel when Israel moved through its land to get to the promised land. Saul was to destroy them. Likely retaliation for the attacks of David. God’s way of getting David out of the situation caused by David’s lack of faith. Also, God uses David to further judge this people.
Ziklag- Philistine city given to David by the Philistines.
v.6- people blamed David, was with Philistines when should have been guarding people, and for being in the situation in the 1st place. But David strengthens self in the Lord.
v.7-8- does not rush into action in a panic. Realizes mistake of not seeking God for everything. Consults God. Recovers all. David given fresh triumph in front of people.
9. army hasn’t grown.
v.11-15- God’s Law- do not oppress stranger, did not kill him for being enemy soldier, will keep oath they made to him.
v.17- # of men who escaped=to size of David’s army.
v.22- men of Belial- literally trouble making scoundrel, Satan. David gives God the glory for the victory, all play an important part.
v.26-31- share spoil, does not hoard like pagan king. Did not say, “Go, get your own spoil in battle.” Gratitude for those who supported him. Here he was 1st crowned as king after Saul’s death. David earns more loyalty after near debacle.
1Sam31:4- Saul thinks only of himself, duty of armor bearer to keep king alive, armor bearer fears consequences from God/men for killing God’s anointed. Saul doesn’t care for him.
v.9- body treated like Goliath’s body. Saul’s sin gave Philistines opportunity to boast about themselves/ their gods against God.
v.11- Jabesh-Gilead- saved by Saul in his 1st military campaign. An act of gratitude.
v.13- Tamarask tree- where Saul held court.
Saul- became king at 20, ruled 40 years, 60 at death. Creamation not normal in Israel, done to prevent further abuse, David later moves remains to family tomb.