Monday, December 7, 2015

We Finally Finished Old Testament Characters

After nearly  3 years, the Wednesday morning class has finally finished studying characters from the Old Testament. We started with the character of God as revealed in Genesis one and He remained the main character throughout. We covered every major character from Genesis to the book of Esther (We did skip Judges for the sake of time). There is no time limit for each lesson. While I have a planned list of items to be taught, anyone in the class can bring up a matter they want to discuss. That explains why it took 3 years. I stopped typing up my notes after David. I got burned out with the project after typing 62 pages. Sometime in the future, I'll finish typing and publishing my notes.

Saturday, September 5, 2015

Old Testament Characters

I am still teaching Old Testament characters on Wednesday morning. Since my last post on this subject, we have covered Solomon, a brief look at 4 Kings of Judah, Elijah, Elisha, and we will probably finish Ezra during the next class. We will conclude with Nehemiah and Esther. I haven't posted my notes since Daniel because, frankly, I got burned out typing them up. So far, I have 62 pages of notes. Someday, I will finish posting them. But not now.

What I've Been Reading

I bought a good deal of books from the Wesley Biblical Seminary library while I was a student. One subject covered by my purchases was death/dying/end of life care/counseling. I have added to these with subsequent purchases. Last December, I undertook the reading of them and I finished last night. The first was a book called "The Loneliness of Man" which was ruined by its existentialist viewpoint, viewing faith as a leap in the dark. Then I read a book on old age which was influenced by the notion that death is to be looked forward to, instead of being viewed as the enemy. Then I read Christopher Hitchen's "Mortality." I thought I might gain an insight on how you deal with those dying of cancer, especially those who don't believe in God. I gained very little insight. Those three were a wash. Then I read Sherwin Nuland's How We Die and Death and Dying by Elizebeth Kubler-Ross. Both were fruitful. Nuland's work took the mystery out of much of what happens at death so readers may not be so surprised as to what is happening to them as they die. Ross demonstrates how to deal with the fears which keep us from dealing with those who have a short time left on earth. Then I read a volume of the writings of Paul Tournier, a Christian doctor and psychologist who was influential during the 50's and 60's. While worth reading, I did have reservations about him. While I was reading Tounier, I read a book which I thought would be about ministering to families which lost an infant. The book was really about making these parents accept Calvinism. Also, I read Nicoloas Woltersdorf's Lament For a Son, a memoir on how he dealt with the death of his son. Then I reread Grief, Transition, and Loss by Wayne Oates. I had read this during my ordination process about three years ago. So, that is what I have been reading for about 3 quarters of a year. I have saved articles from the Internet dealing with the same subjects and will read those as well.  

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

David, Part 3

This is the last part of the notes on Davidfor the Wed. morn. class. Tomorrow we move on to Solomon.

2Sam. 13:1- 2 years after David’s sin with Bathsheba. David is 53, Amnon is 22, Absalom is 20, Tamar is 15, Solomon is 2.
Amnon is the crown prince born of a different mother than Absalom and Tamar. Their mother is Maccha of Geshur (A Pagan?) Problem with multiplying wives. Would Amnon raped his own sister?
v.3- Jonadab, David’s cousin, seeking favor from crown prince.
v. 12- Tamar not just concerned for own self, but for holiness in Israel.
v. 13- Is Tamar willing to marry as well as stop attack? To prevent consequences to her and Amnon? Perhaps not. Such a marriage is prohibited by God’s Law- Lev. 18: 9, 20:17, Dt. 27:22.
v. 15- hate greater than love, she was just a temporary object, Amnon like Esau, seeking immediate gratification.
v. 16- Her virginity stolen, she had nothing to offer to a potential husband. He refused to marry her, violating God’s Law. See Dt. 22:29.
v. 17-18- Amnon leaves impression Tamar tried to seduce him, though she was wearing the symbol of being the king’s virgin daughter (Sign of king’s favor, like Joseph). Treated shamefully. Just as David acted, so did Amnon. He acted as if he could do what he wanted without regard for God and His Law. He coveted after Tamar, seized her, bore false witness.
v.19- ashes on head- sign of great mourning. Torn robe is sign of lost virginity.
v. 20- Absalom doesn’t want Tamar to cause a scandal.
v. 21- David doesn’t carry out Law. Incest punishable by death.He loved his 1st born, daughters were not as important.
v. 22- spoke not at all= bided time
v.23- sheep shearing a festival with food, drink.
v. 25- king’s mighty men would have to accompany him.
v. 26- Amnon would be king’s representative, David had misgivings because of their strained relationship.
v. 28- violation of Eastern hospitality, God’s Law against vengeance. David violated 4 of 10 commandments with Bathsheba, Uriah. Absalom, Amnon together guilty of coveting , bearing false witness, murder.
Absalom makes self successor to the throne.
v. 29- fear for their lives, didn’t want to be associated with this.
v. 32- same one who had given Amnon idea of seducing Tamar.
v. 37- where his mother’s people were from.
v. 38-39- David longed for his son.

2Sam. 14: 7- Law against blood vengeance, Num. 35: 9-21.
v. 2- Joab concerned about instability this situation could cause.
v. 7- God’s Law prevents families from being wiped out. Dt. 25: 5-6, Ruth 2: 20.
Try to convince David of coming disaster over fight over succession.
v. 9- blame for unpunished crime. Wiping out family line as serious as murder.
v. 13- Implies David guilty of blood murder for not forgiving Absalom.
v. 14- woman distorting God’s justice, Gen. 9:6. Emphasize God’s mercy. David’s own crimes adds weight to arguments.
v. 25-26- hair weighed 3 pounds.
v. 32- no sign of repentance.
v. 33- David sidesteps repentance, justice. Helps fulfill Nathan’s prophecy.

2Sam. 15:1-9_ Absalom steals the devotion of the people due to his father.
v.1 Absalom looked like a king in the people’s eyes.
Heir to the throne violated the Law- 1st Israelite leader to have many horses and chariots.  Acquired 50 men. Appeal to the masses who like to follow those who look like a winner.  Remember what David did with horses and chariots- 2nd Sam. 8:4    
v. 3-4- No inquiry into justness of complaints. Absalom bears false witness against David. Deputy=listener. David always acted for the vulnerable, the oppressed (except in the case of Uriah, Tamar) . Kingdom knew about Amnon and Tamar. When Absalom says there is no justice in the land, the people would remember what happened to his sister. Absalom took matters into own hands, exploit David’s weakness, the love for his eldest son.
v.7- four years, or 40 years after David’s anointing, David is about 56.
Hebron was considered the capital of Israel before David made Jerusalem capital. Where David was proclaimed king, where Absalom was born. Local resentment for losing capital?
v. 11- 200 innocent men. There when rebellion started. Looked like they were supporting Absalom, look like Absalom has many supporters. Look of success results in many followers.
v. 12- Ahitophel- Bathsheba’s grandfather. Is he resentful of David’s conduct with Bathsheba, Uriah? David writes of this betrayal in Ps. 41:9, 55: 12-14.
v. 18- King’s mighty men.
v.19- concerned for the weak, oppressed, foreigners in the land, a Philistine.
v. 14- spare Jerusalem a blood bath.
v. 16- David unknowingly arranging fulfillment of Nathan’s prophecy.
v. 25- ark not a magical thing.
v. 26- David knows he has no exclusive claim on the throne.

2Sam. 16: 1- Ziba, the servant who David contacted about Saul’s family in 2Sam. 9. Waiting for David.
v.3-4- son of master can refer to Saul or Jonathan. Son/grandson=Mephibosheth.
Ziba lies. Makes David think Mephibosheth disloyal, ungrateful, delusional. David does not seek Mephibosheth’s life. He still was true to his covenant with Jonathan. He just took all the property he gave to Mephibosheth and gave it to Ziba.
v.7-8- David isn’t responsible for the death of any in Saul’s family. Saul’s family ungrateful, no respect for God’s anointing of David.
v.9- Abisai- David’s cousin, son of his sister Zuriah. Wanted to kill Saul.
v.10- David not of the same nature as Joab/Abishai.
v. 11-12- Shimei cursing David because God making him? Perhaps God will see and vindicate David. Or has God chosen to terminate David’s kingship? David accepts God’s judgment.  Will not kill Shimei; David, a picture of Christ as merciful to the undeserving.
v. 15-19- Hushai tricking Absalom
v. 21-22- fulfillment of Nathan’s prophecy (see 2Sam. 12: 11-12). Taking concubines was the same as taking the throne. Act also signified a complete break with his father.
v. 23- A sign of how respected Ahithophel was, why his defection so gauled David

2Sam. 17: 14- God was working to defeat rebellion against his anointed in answer to David’s prayer in 2Sam. 15:31.
v. 17- grandsons of priests Zadok and Abiathar.
v. 23- knew after adice rejected that David would win the struggle.
v. 25- Joab loyal to cousin David.
Not the same Abigail that was David’s wife. Through another wife of David’s father Jesse.
v. 27- chieftain, tributaries of David. Shows the support of wealthy, influencial persons for David.

2Sam. 18: 1-4- entire fighting force divided so the whole would not be taken.
Itti- see 2Sam. 15:19.
Men don’t want to be pursued, so don’t want David with them. Also, David is now older, not as strong. See 2Sam.17:2 . David does not object. He is humble, even as king.
v. 5- David knew Joab, son of Zuriah. Hoped to keep him from killing Absalom. Love of son almost a fatal weakness.
v. 12-13- loyal to David, soldier spares own life, would not touch the son of God’s anointed.
v. 16- spared people because Absalom was dead.
v.17- not the way royalty is buried, buried like Achan and sons. Contrast to Absalom’s own memorial.
v. 20-21- Joab doesn’t know how David will react.
v. 22- had not seen Absalom’s death.
v. 33- David knew his sin with Bathsheba brought about the deaths of Amnon, Absalom.   

2Sam. 19: 1-4- victory celebration turned into mourning.
v.5- the army put their lives on the line for David
v. 6- Absalom responsible for the slaughter.
7. king must go out and review the troops, or will be abandoned.
v. 9-12- rebellion started in Jerusalem. David wanted to recement ties of Judah with himself, kingdom. Bring king back into Jerusalem in triumph.
Why is Judah, my own people, the last the king back into Jerusalem?
v.13- punishment for Joab? David hopes to cement his followers loyalty.
v. 15-20-  seeking David’s forgiveness. By now it was understood that David was a forgiving king.
House of Joseph- a phrase representing all those who had opposed Judah.
v. 21-22- Abishai- Joab’s brother, son of Zuriah. Wanted to kill Saul. Again David says “What have I to do with you, son of Zuriah?” David not of same nature as Joab, Abishai, David’s cousins. No one dies on day king restored to throne.
v.24- Mephibosheth shows signs of mourning, loyalty for David from very beginning of rebellion.   
v. 26-28- Mephibsheth loyal, Ziba lied. Knows David is merciful, see 2Sam. 9: 1-8.
v.29- punish Ziba, through division of land. At this point, David doesn’t know who is telling the truth. David keeps covenant, even though he knows someone is deceiving him, like Israel kept covenant with Gibeonites.
v. 30-Mephibosheth shows his unselfish loyalty to David.
v. 40-43- other tribes fear Judah will dominate other tribes. Tension comes out during rebellion. David careful not to show favoritism to own tribe. Precursor of rift which will divide kingdom after Solomon’s death.

2Sam. 20: 1- saw the division between Judah, rest of tribes, saw opportunity to exploit, a Benjamite, loyal to Saul, hope to regain throne for tribe, self. Many felt that David favored his tribe above others.
Rebel=Son of Belial- used for all trouble makers like Eli’s sons.
v. 2- division foreshadows division of kingdom.
v. 3- defiled, David remains aloof sexually. His actions were a kindness, could have expelled or killed concubines. Also, a reassertion of royal power.
v. 4-6- David bypasses Joab twice.
v. 7- David relies on small, elite force, the Mighty Men, mainly non-Israelite. Joab still recognized as leader.
v. 9- still a common practice among Arab countries today.
v. 10- 2nd time Joab commits murder to secure his position, takes command without permission.
v. 11- Joab demonstrates loyalty to David.
v. 12- men had respect for the dead. Maybe didn’t want contact with the dead, be unclean? Amasa’s body treated with contempt.
v. 18- Abel considered a place of wise counsel, old woman one of the counselors, faithful Israelites.
v. 19- “mother in Israel”=a city of influence, respect.
v. 22- Joab returns with public testimony of defeating David’s enemies, position entrenched. David can’t remove him.

2Sam. 21.
v. 1-14- Between the time of David’s kindness to Mephibosheth and Absalom’s rebellion. Historical Chronology not always important to ancient writers, whether biblical writers or non-biblical.
v.1- This campaign against the Gibeonites not mentioned elsewhere in Scripture. Gibeonites not Israelite by descent, but occupied a portion of the territory of Benjamin, Saul’s tribe.
v. 2- Gibeonites were Canaanites who tricked Joshua and Israel into covenant of protection, which Saul and family violated.  A covenant in God’s name, no matter the circumstances as to how it came about, has to be honored. God’s reputation is at stake.
“bless”- Gibeonites could rightly call a curse down on the land.
v. 4- Gibeonites forbidden from legal redress against an Israelite? Against God’s Law- Ex. 22:21, Lev. 19:34, 24:22, Dt. 1: 16-17, 24: 17, 27:19.  Did Saul make up a law in opposition to God’s Law?
6. Gibeah- Saul’s home.
Gibeonites refer to Saul’s anointing as king by God.
v. 7- David spares Mephibosheth and his son (s) because of of his covenant with Jonathan.
v. 8- sons of a concubine and sons of Saul’s 1st daughter that had been originally been promised to David for killing Goliath.
v. 9- they were probably part of Saul’s persecution, because son’s not supposed to be punished for father’s crimes.
v. 10- to allow bodies to be ravaged by birds or wild animals was considered the greatest insult or degradation of the dead.
Rain signaled the lifting of the curse, Saul’s sins atoned for.
v. 10-14- David saw Ritzpah’s kindness, remembered kindness of Jabesh Gilead in risking lives to take Saul and son’s bodies from the Philistines, decides to perform one last act of kindness to Saul’s family.
v. 17- David getting old, Israel knows David’s importance as the Lord’s anointed, the covenants made by God concerning him, a member of the family always on the throne.

As stated before, ancient writers, biblical or pagan, were more concerned with theme than with chronology. So, we consider the last days of David and the struggle for succession before we finish 2Sam.

1Kings 1:1- David about 70, old for the time, battle weary.
v. 2- a young woman who would also remain a virgin so not to complicate succession.
v. 5- Adonijah younger brother of Absalom, Tamar. 35 years old. Result of violating Dt. 17:17. Also, mother may not have been an Israelite. Just as Absalom did, disobeyed Dt. 17:16.
No rule of succession in the Law. David could choose whom he wanted to follow him on the throne. He had promised it to Solomon, 1Chron. 22: 6-10, 28: 1-7. All Israel knew this, including Adonijah.
v. 6- David hasn’t learned lesson, will not reign in sons.
v. 7- Abiathar- only priest to escape Saul when Saul murdered the priests- 1Sam. 22- for helping David. Descendant of Eli, whose priestly family was under a curse from God.
v. 8- Benaiah- commander of David’s mighty men, rival to Joab, commander of David’s army. Reason Joab sided with Adonijah.
v. 9- victory celebration, look like a winner.
v. 17- oath taken in the Lord’s name, not voidable.
v. 24- Nathan doesn’t really know if David has sidede with Adonijah. After all, David had history of indulging sons.
v. 33- for Solomon to ride David’s mule was a sign that David favored Solomon as king.
v. 34- only God’s anointed could sit on the throne, throne not for the taking.
v. 42- son of Abiathar, spied on Absalom for David.
v. 49- When Adonijah’s supporters heard this, they abandoned him.
v. 51- those in fear for their life often sought asylum at the altar.
v. 52- Solomon as forgiving as David. Picture of Christ. Adonijah not responsible for slaughter like Absalom. Forgiveness is not trust. Adonijah had to prove himself.

1Kings2: 2-3- walk according to the Law of Moses, under a covenant.
v. 4- promise to David conditional, based on obedience to Mosaic Law, Mosaic covenant.
v. 5-6- Joab killed in violation of the Law, didn’t kill in battle. Violated covenant David made with Abner, killed him in city of refuge. Amasa’s killing unlawful as well. Joab’s treachery, by siding with Adonijah, gives David an opportunity to bring judgment on Joab.
v. 7- Barzillai loyal to David during Absalom’s rebellion.

Now we return to 2Sam. We will examine the last 3 chapters, working backwards. The author (s) chose to end 2Sam. with an event which shows the two sides of David, the sinner, and the repentant one. David’s portrayal is not airbrushed, but we see the consequences when one follows God and when a follower chooses sin.

2Sam. 1: Did God cause David to sin? See 1Chron. 21:1. God allowed Satan to influence David, see James 1:13. Like when God hardened Pharaoh’s already hardened heart, when God sent an evil spirit to enter Saul, and when a demon entered Judas, compel them to do evil when they allowed it in their own heart. David was probably trusting in his own strength. David told Goliath the battle is the Lord’s, but here David shows a lack of trust. Also, God angry with whole nation, scripture doesn’t say why. Also, David violated God’s Law concerning the census, see Ex. 30: 11-16. A census was to be an act of worship, a way to raise a tax given in faith as an atonement for sins, to support the Tabernacle. Not done here, but used to number troops for battle, rely on numbers for strength when they were to rely on God, violation of rules for kings, see Dt. 17: 14-20. Stated punishment, plagues. David knew this when God gave him the 3 choices. David chose what was in the Law, even though it may have been the most severe to the people. David in anguish when he sees his people punished.  David took responsibility, Saul always had an excuse.
v. 18-25- God commands David to build an altar, located on Mt. Moriah, where Abraham offered up Isaac (Gen 22: 2), the location of Solomon’s temple.
Araunah’s offer refused. David treated the people justly, according to God’s Law. Will not use position to gain unfair advantage. Animals not paid for not an acceptable sacrifice. To sacrifice them would offend God. The site of Israel’s future worship would not be compromised in such a way. David’s conduct, his faith and repentance, ended the plague.

2Sam23- Not necessarily David’s last words on his death bed, but his last poetic statement.
v. 1- David acknowledges humble origins, and how it was God who anointed him king.
The God of history, the same God who increased Jacob preserved David and made an everlasting covenant with him.
Sweet psalmist wrote Israel’s hymnbook, Jesus’ prayer book.
2. Spirit spoke through David while David responded to circumstances, as explanations at beginning of many Psalms attest.
v. 3-4- kings who rule righteously are like those described in Ps. 1: 2-3 and Dt. 17: 18-20. Righteous rule stems from meditation upon and obedience to God’s Law.
v. 5- God made everlasting covenant with David who thinks this refers only to throne in Jerusalem. But his family will rule forever in Jesus Christ.
v. 6-7- Those who don’t follow God’s Laws will be destroyed , like David’s own sons.   

2Sam. 22: 1- This chapter is almost the same as Ps. 18. Probably written between the time when David subdued his enemies and his sin with Bathsheba.
v. 2- The Lord is a rock, deliverer, not like idols. Only God can protect.
v. 3- David trusts in God, not himself, a public confession to his people and his enemies. 
A personal God v. impersonal idols.
v. 5-18- A personal God who cares for each of those who trust and obey Him, one who is angry when His followers are oppressed. David was God’s anointed, see v. 8-9.
v. 21-25- written before David’s sin.
David had clean hands because he obeyed God’s Law which is the essence of pleasing God. If faithful, God will be faithful.
v. 26-28- God’s relationship with David can be had by anyone who trusts and obeys Him.
v. 50- David will praise God’s name to the Gentiles. For what purpose? So that the Gentiles would also follow His Laws.

v. 51- Repeat the promise, David’s family will always be on the throne forever, fulfilled through Jesus. 

Thursday, January 15, 2015

David, Part 2

Last Wednesday morning we finished our study of David. We will now move on to Solomon. Here is Part 2 of my notes on David (Part 3 will follow soon):

1st and 2nd Sam. originally 1 book. Sources, see 1Chron. 29:29, 3 books- Book of Nathan the prophet, Book of Samuel the seer, Book of Gad the seer. Written after 931 B.C. after split in kingdom. Book divided in 2 by Septuagint. 
2Sam. 1:1-10- An Amalakite, no sense of the holiness of the Lord’s anointing, thinks will impress David with false story, claiming to have carried out Saul’s last request, took symbols of royalty. Also didn’t know about David’s recent battles with the Amalakites. Clothes torn, dusty, plea for sympathy. See v.6- “…happened to be on Mt. Gilboa…” probably not a soldier, but a scavenger, ready to rob the dead and wounded.
v.11-12- not just mourning individuals, but also the Lord’s people and that the pagans were given an opportunity to celebrate a triumph over them. (see v.19-20).   
v.14- this is the reason for his execution, see 2Sam.4:10.
v.17-27- Song of the Bow- Bow a symbol of military might. The tribe of Benjamin, Saul and Jonathan’s tribe, noted for skill with a bow.
Book of Jasher, or, Book of the Upright- national songbook of Israel before the book of Psalms. See Josh. 10: 12-13.
v.19-20- Pagans given cause to celebrate. How the mighty have fallen, v. 19,25, and v. 23-24.
v.21- oil rubbed on leather shields to preserve them.
v.26- Jonathan’s self denying commitment. Risked own life to strengthen David. See 1Sam. 23.

2Sam. 2:1- just as David didn’t kill Saul when he had the chance, David will not seize kingdom in his own time. Will wait for God.
Hebron a central location in Judah. A city of refuge. A loyal follower of God would not shed blood ruthlessly, especially in a city of refuge.
v.4- anointed as king of Judah. Already been anointed by Samuel in secret. A more direct challenge to Saul’s family.
v.4-7- Even though Saul was his enemy, David blessed Jabesh Gilead, even though Saul’s son was now their master. David gave veiled invitation to join him.
v.8-10- Ishbosheth- a younger son? At 40, would have made Jonathan much older than David, who was about 30 years old at this time. Ishbosheth not a warrior? Name means “man of shame.” Name was originally Esh baal, “fire of Baal.” Born around time Saul became king. Saul’s family was pagan, fire of Baal, human sacrifice. Remember, Michal had pagan idol when helped David escape.
Abner- fighting for life of self, family, use Saul’s son for own ambition.
v.10-11- after Ishbosheth’s 2 yr. reign, David waits for people to come to him, confirm David’s anointing.
v.12- Abner’s army depleted after Saul’s defeat. Initiates action to prevent David’s influence from spreading. Gibeon in Benjamin’s territory, where Saul was from.
v.15- Ishbosheth supported mainly by own tribe. Tribe not just loyal to one of their own, but fearful what David will do to them; not sure of David’s assurances. See v.7.
v.17- representative combat. Like Philistines using Goliath as their champion. Effort failed. Both armies joined the battle.
v.18- Zeruiah- David’s older sister- 3 sons: Joab, Abishai (with David when David took Saul’s spear, water jug, asked David if he could run Saul through with a spear.), and Asahel.
v.21-26- Abner wanted to avoid killing Asahel, avoid blood feud with Joab. Abner proposes armistice to prevent civil war, now that plans to stop David had failed.

2Sam3:1- about 5 ½ years.
v.2-5-  David marrying more wives, breaking God’s Law, Dt.17:17- “Nor shall he multiply wives for himself, lest his heart turn away.” Writer doesn’t directly criticize, but let situation speak for itself, expect reader to know the Law.
v.8- concubines were inherited part of royal property. By taking concubine, Abner was making claim to the throne. Ishbosheth sees this as treason.
v.9-10- knowledge of david’s anointing as king spreads.  Dan to Beersheeba- the whole nation.
v.12- “whose land was it?” – Abner or David’s? in Abner’s mind, it is his, had it in his power to transfer kingdom to David. Tells David, “make agreement with me.” Abner wanted no reprisals against him, family.
v.13- David demanded Michal not out of any ill will against Saul’s house. Saul took Michal from him. David wanted her back.
v.15-16- Saul didn’t respect sanctity of marriage vows. David wanted Michal’s return to be act of king, not Abner. This would acknowledge Saul’s deed as wrong, strengthen David’s claim to the throne. Knew Ishbosheth would do all Abner would tell him.
v.18- did God really say this.
v.19- in hearing of Ishbosheth’s only supporters. Apparently tribe of Benjamin decided it was better to side with David.
v.21- a covenant was binding, would be done in God’s name, by this time, knew they could trust David to keep a covenant. David sends Abner away in peace, part of evidence binding covenant in place.
v.25- Joab hated Abner for killing his brother, also, if Abner made peace with David, Abner would have prominent place in kingdom, threaten Joab’s position, Abner would have been a power to reckon with.
v.26-27- Hebron a city of refuge. Abner thought Joab was summoning him on David’s behalf. Abner trusted David. Joab made David look bad, untrustworthy. As God’s man in Israel, make God look bad. This was against the Law, vengeance is mine, says the Lord. Asahel died in battle, Abner did not murder him.
v.28- guiltless, no intent to kill, individual responsibility. Joab not a man after God’s own heart, doesn’t care to follow God’s Law. He fights for David because he is of family of David and had to protect self, family from family of Saul. Joab made God look bad. This is why Moses didn’t enter promise land. David was at the point of convincing all of Israel he would be a king who didn’t seek vengeance, about ready to unite Israel under him. Joab’s actions imperiled God’s plan. War would continue for another 5 ½ years. David not yet secure enough to punish Joab.
v.29- see v.39- family traits are evil, sons of Zeruiah. David not yet secure enough to punish Joab.  
v.31- Joab compelled to publicly mourn Abner, publicly declare own act wrong.
v.32- David buried former enemy in own territory, gave him a state funeral .
v.34- David publicly disavows Joab’s act, must gain trust of other tribes.

2Sam.4:1-probably knew he was a dead man, many thought David would kill him, without Abner, there would be civil strife, no leadership outside Judah.
v. 4- Mesh.’s nurse had similar fears that David would kill Saul’s family.
Mesh.- means from the mouth of a shameful thing. His name originally was Meri-baal, or, opponent of Baal. Jonathan’s son.
v.6-7- killed by those of own tribe, the killers desecrated the body of a king. Like the way the Philistines desecrated Saul’s body.
v.8- David had covenant with Jonathan and Saul concerning Saul’s descendants.
v.9- David trusted in God, didn’t need to act in pagan bloodthirsty way. V.12- hung hands that did the deed, feet that ran to and from crime and brought head to David.
Buried Ishbosheth with honor, signal to tribe of Benjamin, other tribes that David holds no resentment towards them.

2Sam.5:1- 5 ½ years after Ishbosheth’s death, Israel had enough of leaderless strife. Came to trust David. Recognize all Israelites were one people.
v.2- David built up trust, showed he was the Lord’s anointed. See David as shepherd as well as warrior and king.
v.3- Covenant and anointing in Hebron, where all the patriarchs are buried.
v. 4-5- 7 ½ years in Judah, 33 years over all Israel. David 30 when became king of Judah. Jesus was 30 when he began his ministry.
David’s kingship over Israel came through covenant, not conquest.
v.6- Jerusalem- on border between Judah and Benjamin, controlled by pagans, by making it his royal city, neither tribe given the upper hand.  11 acres, 3,500 in population. Located on rise surrounded on 3 sides by deep valleys. Jebusites thought their walls impregnable, referred to selves as blind and lame (KJV and NKJV not clear here.)
v.7- 1st occurrence of the word “zion” in Old test. Meaning unknown, referred originally to southern most hill where Jebusite fortress was, later referred to whole city.
v.8- water shafts used to bring water into city during siege. See 1Chron. 11:4-9
Jebusites will remain in Jerusalem, but will not be allowed in the palace.
v.11-12- 1st nation to recognize David as king, Israel controlled inland trade routes to Tyre, dependent on Israel for much of its food.
David knew God had exalted him as king for the sake of national Israel.
v.14- Bathsheba is their mother.
v.17- by now Philistines know David had tricked them when he resided in their territory, he tricked them about who he really attaked.
v.19, 24- David inquired of the Lord, God didn’t have David do the same things twice.
v.21- images, what the Philistines prayed to before a battle, shown to be worthless, burned by David, 1st Chron. 14:12.
v.24- the Lord marched before David, it is the Lord that fights our battles.
Fear of David upon all nations, 1Chron. 14:17.

Chapter 6:1- 70 years since ark taken into house of Aminadad after capture by Philistines.
David started with 400 men, now had 30,000. David is establishing God’s kingship over whole nation.
v.2- ark represented very presence of God. Lord of Hosts- name revealed everything God revealed Himself to be.
v.3- not the prescribed way of the Law. See Ex. 25:10-22. David followed Philistine example, carried it in a cart.
v.6-7- error means irreverence. Not even priests were allowed to touch ark, or look at it. When the directions were not followed, no way of dealing with this difficulty.
v.9- fear from guilt, responsibility.
v.10-  Obed-Edom, family of Levitical priests, door keepers.         
v. 12- God’s anger appeased.
v.13- David finds proper way, the presence of God carried by people, not things.
v.14- David worshipped with all his might- loved the Lord with all strength, mind, might, and soul.
Rejoicing- literally, spinning around.  Elsewhere in Old Testament, only the women dance. Michal described as Saul’s daughter, not David’s wife. Prideful like her father, not humble like her husband.
v.20- uncover self, divest self of royal robes, wearing ephod. Base fellows, common man.
v.23- punishment for her pride, punishment on the house of Saul. No rivals for kingship from this pagan family later on.

1Chron. 16- culmination of events beginning with God telling Moses to take Israel out of Egypt, Moses telling Pharaoh to let God’s people go that they may worship God, but not final culmination. That would come later when Solomon dedicates the Temple. What does David emphasize? What has been emphasized throughout these lessons-

v. 8-13- give thanks, call on His name. He is not like pagan gods. Sing to Him, praise Him, speak of all He has done. Seek Him, He can be found. History important, remember His works, judgments.
v.14-19- Importance of Covenant.
v. 20-22- He protected His people.
v. 23-24- His salvation is for all peoples.
v.25-27- God is not like the idols, see verse 26- God made the heavens, He is completely separate from creation, unlike the idols.
v. 28-30- worship in prescribed way in holiness.
v.31-33- God reigns and will judge the earth.
v.34-36- Moses to Pharaoh- let my people go so they may worship God.

2Sam. 7: 1-  (in ancient world, histories and biographies were not always chronological, more interested in developing theme than chronology.)
Rest from enemies, now David thinks of God’s house.
v.3- Nathan encourages David to build, God has other plans. Human common sense cannot be our guide.
v.4- Nathan had to humble himself, admit he was wrong. Even a prophet has to be careful when he claims he speaks for God.
v.5- Are you the one to build me a house? See 1Chron. 28:3.
“…my servant David…” remember Moses called God’s servant, then Joshua when he obeyed God.
v.6- God is God no matter where He appears.
v.7- it was God’s intent that Israel be shepherded, not that Israel would build Him a house.
v.8- God reminds David what He has done for him, not in a threatening way, but to remind David of His goodness, so David will trust in God and be confident that God will fulfill what He is about to promise David.
v.9- God had been wherever David had gone (God is not bound by geography like pagan gods), saved David from his enemies, made David’s name great.
v.10-11- move no more as Abraham, Moses, and Joshua did. Israel will not be oppressed like in the time of the Judges.
v.11- David won’t build God a house, but God will build David a house, a royal line, final fulfillment in Christ’s Kingdom.
v.12-15- speaking of Solomon, he shall build the Temple, throne will last forever in Christ and His Church. Solomon will be punished when his son will lose most of the kingdom.
v.15- Solomon will stay on throne, unlike Saul whom God removed. Not just Saul, but Saul’s family punished. Judah will outlast Israel.
v.16- one of the many verses that led Israel to believe Messiah will be like David.
v.18- David sat before the Lord, sat before the ark.
Humility, not of great origin.
v.19- God is sovereign, Lord of Hosts.
Is this like Man? God is not like pagan gods, who are just humanity super sized.
v.21- God did these things for His sake, so David would know that God can be trusted.
v.22- therefore, because of these things, God is great. God does these things so we know He is great. Testimony, history.
v.23- God chose to work through Israel as a testimony to the entire world. Ruth, Rahab, the Kenites, all those who became Jews.
v.24- a people who look to no other god.
v. 25-29- because of God’s promise, David moved to pray. Worship is in response to God’s goodness. Faith in God’s goodness, David knows God will fulfill His promise because God is good.     

2Sam. 8:1- literally, The Bridle of the Mother City. Philistines had a king and princes of cities.
v.2- killed 2 out of 3 prisoners. Did David ask for their surrender? Moabites are his people, from Ruth his great grandmother.
v.3- Land promised to Abraham by God extended to the Euphrates river.
v.4- hamstring- cut the tendon. Horses only good for farming. Israel and king not to rely on horses, but God in battle, Dt. 17:16.
v. 7-11- dedicated articles to the Lord, not used for his own glory. Solomon will use them for Temple and it’s services.
v.12- Edom, Moab, Ammonite, Philistines, Amalek. God using David to subdue them.
v.13-14- Edom- older will serve younger. What God told Rebekah concerning her children.

2Sam. 9: 1-     for the sake of covenant with Jonathan, and later, Saul.
v. 3- acting for God, modeling God’s kindness.
v. 7- probably Gibeah.
v.8- Mephibosheth, does he know about the covenant between David and Jonathan? Doesn’t know God’s kindness.
v. 11- David- model of Christ. Christ restores us and lets us eat at God’s table.
v.12- many years have passed; Mephibosheth, 5 yrs old when he has become lame, now has son of his own.

2Sam. 11:1- Read entire chapter before going over it.
 “…when kings go to battle…” –April-May, after the grain harvest, 10 years as king in Jerusalem. No responsibilities, let guard down, personal body guard not surrounding him.
v.2- roofs were flat, people bathed on them, David knew that.
v.4- 2Sam. 23:39- Uriah listed as one of David’s mighty men, elite warriors of David’s personal body guard, special forces. Bathsheba’s father, Eliam, also listed in this group.
Uriah a Hittite- either became a Jew, or family did. Name means “my light is the Lord.” Had adopted Israel’s faith.
Cleansed of menstrual cycle, not pregnant, so when she becomes pregnant, she knows it is David’s child.
v.4- took her. Did she have a choice? Yes, according to God’s Law; would David have relented if she had quoted the Law, reminded him of the fact that he was God’s man, like Abigail did?
David breaks  4 of the 10 commandments, 6th (murder), 7th adultery), 9th(false witness), and 10th (coveting).
v.5- penalty for adultery- Lev. 20:10, Dt. 22:22.
v. 6-13- David attempts to deceive. Uriah shows the very qualities David expected of his warriors. David had never display a lack of integrity before.
v.8- food from the king’s table, wanted Uriah, Bathsheba to enjoy themselves. Bathsheba in on deception.
v.11- David should be with the troops. Uriah behaves as David should have. The ark symbolized God’s presence on the battlefield, but David not there with his men.
v.15- Uriah carries his own death warrant.
v.16- David made it look like Uriah guilty of something worthy of death, some secret treachery. David attacks the reputation of an upright man. In the Psalms, David bitterly complains to God about the lies told about him.
v.17- servants- men who committed their lives to David.
v. 18-25- David would have been justifiably angry if he himself had not ordered Joab to place men close to the wall of the enemy city. David guilty of the murder of those who died with Uriah.
v. 26-27- David violated God’s Law, abused the power given to him by God to shepherd the nation. 1st time scripture says David displeased the Lord.

2Sam. 12: 1-4- A direct accusation might have caused David to deny the charge, justify self, or punish Nathan.
David from humble origins, on the side of the down trodden, knows what its like to suffer from the hands of the mighty.
No honor to the guest if rich man didn’t feed him from his own provisions.
A heinous crime in Israel to steal pet and kill it, but,
v.5-6-  Ex.22:1- theft is not punishable by death in the Old Testament.
v.7- “You are that man!” You judge, so judgment comes upon you! I made you king, I delivered you from Saul, David acted with lack of gratitude to God, acted as if he was king through his own efforts. David was saved through the miraculous saving power of God, but David acted as if God didn’t exist.
v.8- David given much, should have been satisfied. Had he wanted more, should have had the faith that God would provide. God is the source of contentment.
v. 9-11- no regard for God’s Law. Broke 4 of 10 commandments. Killed Uriah, other of his soldiers with the sword, even if he didn’t actually wield it himself.  Taken wife, family, David will suffer proportional punishment- “eye for an eye.” David will suffer from acts of own family. “The sword will never leave your house.”
v. 11-12- David acted as if God didn’t see in secret, God will punish David in the open.
v.13- confession, no attempt to justify self, didn’t kill or inprison Nathan. The Law condemned David to death (Ex. 21:12, Lev. 20:10), but the Lord forgives David.  Why? David was made king to exalt the nation of Israel and to be a picture of Christ. Yet David will suffer the consequences.
v. 14- given God’s enemies an occasion to blaspheme (to ridicule belief in God) like Saul did. David was known to be God’s man. David made God look bad, like Moses did.
v. 23- no infant damnation.
v.24- Solomon means peace.
Jeddidiah means loved by the Lord. Shows God’s continuing grace to a repentant David.
Ps. 51- To the chief musician- of David-after confronted by Nathan about Bathsheba.  Confession before all not only what he had done, but admission that apart from God, he is ungodly, sinful. Public role, his repentance had to be public.
v. 1-2- have mercy on me, don’t just forgive, but cleanse. Reliance on God for cleansing, not self, not ritual.
According to God’s tender mercies- David knew of these by experience.
Blot out- like a scroll of David’s kingship kept by God.
v.4- David confesses sin was primarily against God. Broke 4 out of 10 commandments. All sin against persons are sins against God because they are in God’s image.
v.5 does this mean we are sinful because of parents procreative act. No. We are born to sin because we are born with ability to willfully choose sin.
v. 6- God desires truth in inward parts- conduct is not just play acting, but acknowledgement that God is real. Our conduct is acting in faith that God is real and He sees and knows all and is a holy God. He reads our thoughts, knows what is in our hearts. If obey, God will provide wisdom. Like Sermon on the Mount- if lust in heart, impure.
v. 7- prayer for moral integrity- God can make me so clean there are no words to describe it. Purge with hyssop- an herb associated with cleansing, purification. Wash- not just simple cleaning, but beating, pounding.
v.8- let me hear prophetic utterance of forgiveness that leads to assurance of salvation.
v. 10-11- God does this- create new hearts with new desires.
Steadfast- sturdy, strong, reliable.
Without confession and repentance, Holy Spirit grieves. God cannot be in presence of sin. David had been in sin for nearly a year. Holy Spirit can depart, one can lose their salvation. David remembers Saul, doen’t want to end up like him.
v. 12-13- restore joy of salvation, sure knowledge that leads to assurance of salvation. The Holy Spirit is generous, David knows God, then will reach, teach sinners.
v. 14- save me from the guilt of murder.\
v.15- salvation resulting in praise.

v.16-19- no faith in sacrifices, this would lead to play acting before others. But faith in God, brokenness before God, then God will accept sacrifices offered in faith. A prayer not just for himself, but for Jerusalem and all his people.