1st and 2nd Sam. originally 1 book. Sources, see 1Chron. 29:29, 3 books- Book of Nathan the prophet, Book of Samuel the seer, Book of Gad the seer. Written after 931 B.C. after split in kingdom. Book divided in 2 by Septuagint.
2Sam. 1:1-10- An Amalakite, no sense of the holiness of the Lord’s anointing, thinks will impress David with false story, claiming to have carried out Saul’s last request, took symbols of royalty. Also didn’t know about David’s recent battles with the Amalakites. Clothes torn, dusty, plea for sympathy. See v.6- “…happened to be on Mt. Gilboa…” probably not a soldier, but a scavenger, ready to rob the dead and wounded.
v.11-12- not just mourning individuals, but also the Lord’s people and that the pagans were given an opportunity to celebrate a triumph over them. (see v.19-20).
v.14- this is the reason for his execution, see 2Sam.4:10.
v.17-27- Song of the Bow- Bow a symbol of military might. The tribe of Benjamin, Saul and Jonathan’s tribe, noted for skill with a bow.
Book of Jasher, or, Book of the Upright- national songbook of Israel before the book of Psalms. See Josh. 10: 12-13.
v.19-20- Pagans given cause to celebrate. How the mighty have fallen, v. 19,25, and v. 23-24.
v.21- oil rubbed on leather shields to preserve them.
v.26- Jonathan’s self denying commitment. Risked own life to strengthen David. See 1Sam. 23.
2Sam. 2:1- just as David didn’t kill Saul when he had the chance, David will not seize kingdom in his own time. Will wait for God.
Hebron a central location in Judah. A city of refuge. A loyal follower of God would not shed blood ruthlessly, especially in a city of refuge.
v.4- anointed as king of Judah. Already been anointed by Samuel in secret. A more direct challenge to Saul’s family.
v.4-7- Even though Saul was his enemy, David blessed Jabesh Gilead, even though Saul’s son was now their master. David gave veiled invitation to join him.
v.8-10- Ishbosheth- a younger son? At 40, would have made Jonathan much older than David, who was about 30 years old at this time. Ishbosheth not a warrior? Name means “man of shame.” Name was originally Esh baal, “fire of Baal.” Born around time Saul became king. Saul’s family was pagan, fire of Baal, human sacrifice. Remember, Michal had pagan idol when helped David escape.
Abner- fighting for life of self, family, use Saul’s son for own ambition.
v.10-11- after Ishbosheth’s 2 yr. reign, David waits for people to come to him, confirm David’s anointing.
v.12- Abner’s army depleted after Saul’s defeat. Initiates action to prevent David’s influence from spreading. Gibeon in Benjamin’s territory, where Saul was from.
v.15- Ishbosheth supported mainly by own tribe. Tribe not just loyal to one of their own, but fearful what David will do to them; not sure of David’s assurances. See v.7.
v.17- representative combat. Like Philistines using Goliath as their champion. Effort failed. Both armies joined the battle.
v.18- Zeruiah- David’s older sister- 3 sons: Joab, Abishai (with David when David took Saul’s spear, water jug, asked David if he could run Saul through with a spear.), and Asahel.
v.21-26- Abner wanted to avoid killing Asahel, avoid blood feud with Joab. Abner proposes armistice to prevent civil war, now that plans to stop David had failed.
2Sam3:1- about 5 ½ years.
v.2-5- David marrying more wives, breaking God’s Law, Dt.17:17- “Nor shall he multiply wives for himself, lest his heart turn away.” Writer doesn’t directly criticize, but let situation speak for itself, expect reader to know the Law.
v.8- concubines were inherited part of royal property. By taking concubine, Abner was making claim to the throne. Ishbosheth sees this as treason.
v.9-10- knowledge of david’s anointing as king spreads. Dan to Beersheeba- the whole nation.
v.12- “whose land was it?” – Abner or David’s? in Abner’s mind, it is his, had it in his power to transfer kingdom to David. Tells David, “make agreement with me.” Abner wanted no reprisals against him, family.
v.13- David demanded Michal not out of any ill will against Saul’s house. Saul took Michal from him. David wanted her back.
v.15-16- Saul didn’t respect sanctity of marriage vows. David wanted Michal’s return to be act of king, not Abner. This would acknowledge Saul’s deed as wrong, strengthen David’s claim to the throne. Knew Ishbosheth would do all Abner would tell him.
v.18- did God really say this.
v.19- in hearing of Ishbosheth’s only supporters. Apparently tribe of Benjamin decided it was better to side with David.
v.21- a covenant was binding, would be done in God’s name, by this time, knew they could trust David to keep a covenant. David sends Abner away in peace, part of evidence binding covenant in place.
v.25- Joab hated Abner for killing his brother, also, if Abner made peace with David, Abner would have prominent place in kingdom, threaten Joab’s position, Abner would have been a power to reckon with.
v.26-27- Hebron a city of refuge. Abner thought Joab was summoning him on David’s behalf. Abner trusted David. Joab made David look bad, untrustworthy. As God’s man in Israel, make God look bad. This was against the Law, vengeance is mine, says the Lord. Asahel died in battle, Abner did not murder him.
v.28- guiltless, no intent to kill, individual responsibility. Joab not a man after God’s own heart, doesn’t care to follow God’s Law. He fights for David because he is of family of David and had to protect self, family from family of Saul. Joab made God look bad. This is why Moses didn’t enter promise land. David was at the point of convincing all of Israel he would be a king who didn’t seek vengeance, about ready to unite Israel under him. Joab’s actions imperiled God’s plan. War would continue for another 5 ½ years. David not yet secure enough to punish Joab.
v.29- see v.39- family traits are evil, sons of Zeruiah. David not yet secure enough to punish Joab.
v.31- Joab compelled to publicly mourn Abner, publicly declare own act wrong.
v.32- David buried former enemy in own territory, gave him a state funeral .
v.34- David publicly disavows Joab’s act, must gain trust of other tribes.
2Sam.4:1-probably knew he was a dead man, many thought David would kill him, without Abner, there would be civil strife, no leadership outside Judah.
v. 4- Mesh.’s nurse had similar fears that David would kill Saul’s family.
Mesh.- means from the mouth of a shameful thing. His name originally was Meri-baal, or, opponent of Baal. Jonathan’s son.
v.6-7- killed by those of own tribe, the killers desecrated the body of a king. Like the way the Philistines desecrated Saul’s body.
v.8- David had covenant with Jonathan and Saul concerning Saul’s descendants.
v.9- David trusted in God, didn’t need to act in pagan bloodthirsty way. V.12- hung hands that did the deed, feet that ran to and from crime and brought head to David.
Buried Ishbosheth with honor, signal to tribe of Benjamin, other tribes that David holds no resentment towards them.
2Sam.5:1- 5 ½ years after Ishbosheth’s death, Israel had enough of leaderless strife. Came to trust David. Recognize all Israelites were one people.
v.2- David built up trust, showed he was the Lord’s anointed. See David as shepherd as well as warrior and king.
v.3- Covenant and anointing in Hebron, where all the patriarchs are buried.
v. 4-5- 7 ½ years in Judah, 33 years over all Israel. David 30 when became king of Judah. Jesus was 30 when he began his ministry.
David’s kingship over Israel came through covenant, not conquest.
v.6- Jerusalem- on border between Judah and Benjamin, controlled by pagans, by making it his royal city, neither tribe given the upper hand. 11 acres, 3,500 in population. Located on rise surrounded on 3 sides by deep valleys. Jebusites thought their walls impregnable, referred to selves as blind and lame (KJV and NKJV not clear here.)
v.7- 1st occurrence of the word “zion” in Old test. Meaning unknown, referred originally to southern most hill where Jebusite fortress was, later referred to whole city.
v.8- water shafts used to bring water into city during siege. See 1Chron. 11:4-9
Jebusites will remain in Jerusalem, but will not be allowed in the palace.
v.11-12- 1st nation to recognize David as king, Israel controlled inland trade routes to Tyre, dependent on Israel for much of its food.
David knew God had exalted him as king for the sake of national Israel.
v.14- Bathsheba is their mother.
v.17- by now Philistines know David had tricked them when he resided in their territory, he tricked them about who he really attaked.
v.19, 24- David inquired of the Lord, God didn’t have David do the same things twice.
v.21- images, what the Philistines prayed to before a battle, shown to be worthless, burned by David, 1st Chron. 14:12.
v.24- the Lord marched before David, it is the Lord that fights our battles.
Fear of David upon all nations, 1Chron. 14:17.
Chapter 6:1- 70 years since ark taken into house of Aminadad after capture by Philistines.
David started with 400 men, now had 30,000. David is establishing God’s kingship over whole nation.
v.2- ark represented very presence of God. Lord of Hosts- name revealed everything God revealed Himself to be.
v.3- not the prescribed way of the Law. See Ex. 25:10-22. David followed Philistine example, carried it in a cart.
v.6-7- error means irreverence. Not even priests were allowed to touch ark, or look at it. When the directions were not followed, no way of dealing with this difficulty.
v.9- fear from guilt, responsibility.
v.10- Obed-Edom, family of Levitical priests, door keepers.
v. 12- God’s anger appeased.
v.13- David finds proper way, the presence of God carried by people, not things.
v.14- David worshipped with all his might- loved the Lord with all strength, mind, might, and soul.
Rejoicing- literally, spinning around. Elsewhere in Old Testament, only the women dance. Michal described as Saul’s daughter, not David’s wife. Prideful like her father, not humble like her husband.
v.20- uncover self, divest self of royal robes, wearing ephod. Base fellows, common man.
v.23- punishment for her pride, punishment on the house of Saul. No rivals for kingship from this pagan family later on.
1Chron. 16- culmination of events beginning with God telling Moses to take Israel out of Egypt, Moses telling Pharaoh to let God’s people go that they may worship God, but not final culmination. That would come later when Solomon dedicates the Temple. What does David emphasize? What has been emphasized throughout these lessons-
v. 8-13- give thanks, call on His name. He is not like pagan gods. Sing to Him, praise Him, speak of all He has done. Seek Him, He can be found. History important, remember His works, judgments.
v.14-19- Importance of Covenant.
v. 20-22- He protected His people.
v. 23-24- His salvation is for all peoples.
v.25-27- God is not like the idols, see verse 26- God made the heavens, He is completely separate from creation, unlike the idols.
v. 28-30- worship in prescribed way in holiness.
v.31-33- God reigns and will judge the earth.
v.34-36- Moses to Pharaoh- let my people go so they may worship God.
2Sam. 7: 1- (in ancient world, histories and biographies were not always chronological, more interested in developing theme than chronology.)
Rest from enemies, now David thinks of God’s house.
v.3- Nathan encourages David to build, God has other plans. Human common sense cannot be our guide.
v.4- Nathan had to humble himself, admit he was wrong. Even a prophet has to be careful when he claims he speaks for God.
v.5- Are you the one to build me a house? See 1Chron. 28:3.
“…my servant David…” remember Moses called God’s servant, then Joshua when he obeyed God.
v.6- God is God no matter where He appears.
v.7- it was God’s intent that Israel be shepherded, not that Israel would build Him a house.
v.8- God reminds David what He has done for him, not in a threatening way, but to remind David of His goodness, so David will trust in God and be confident that God will fulfill what He is about to promise David.
v.9- God had been wherever David had gone (God is not bound by geography like pagan gods), saved David from his enemies, made David’s name great.
v.10-11- move no more as Abraham, Moses, and Joshua did. Israel will not be oppressed like in the time of the Judges.
v.11- David won’t build God a house, but God will build David a house, a royal line, final fulfillment in Christ’s Kingdom.
v.12-15- speaking of Solomon, he shall build the Temple, throne will last forever in Christ and His Church. Solomon will be punished when his son will lose most of the kingdom.
v.15- Solomon will stay on throne, unlike Saul whom God removed. Not just Saul, but Saul’s family punished. Judah will outlast Israel.
v.16- one of the many verses that led Israel to believe Messiah will be like David.
v.18- David sat before the Lord, sat before the ark.
Humility, not of great origin.
v.19- God is sovereign, Lord of Hosts.
Is this like Man? God is not like pagan gods, who are just humanity super sized.
v.21- God did these things for His sake, so David would know that God can be trusted.
v.22- therefore, because of these things, God is great. God does these things so we know He is great. Testimony, history.
v.23- God chose to work through Israel as a testimony to the entire world. Ruth, Rahab, the Kenites, all those who became Jews.
v.24- a people who look to no other god.
v. 25-29- because of God’s promise, David moved to pray. Worship is in response to God’s goodness. Faith in God’s goodness, David knows God will fulfill His promise because God is good.
2Sam. 8:1- literally, The Bridle of the Mother City. Philistines had a king and princes of cities.
v.2- killed 2 out of 3 prisoners. Did David ask for their surrender? Moabites are his people, from Ruth his great grandmother.
v.3- Land promised to Abraham by God extended to the Euphrates river.
v.4- hamstring- cut the tendon. Horses only good for farming. Israel and king not to rely on horses, but God in battle, Dt. 17:16.
v. 7-11- dedicated articles to the Lord, not used for his own glory. Solomon will use them for Temple and it’s services.
v.12- Edom, Moab, Ammonite, Philistines, Amalek. God using David to subdue them.
v.13-14- Edom- older will serve younger. What God told Rebekah concerning her children.
2Sam. 9: 1- for the sake of covenant with Jonathan, and later, Saul.
v. 3- acting for God, modeling God’s kindness.
v. 7- probably Gibeah.
v.8- Mephibosheth, does he know about the covenant between David and Jonathan? Doesn’t know God’s kindness.
v. 11- David- model of Christ. Christ restores us and lets us eat at God’s table.
v.12- many years have passed; Mephibosheth, 5 yrs old when he has become lame, now has son of his own.
2Sam. 11:1- Read entire chapter before going over it.
“…when kings go to battle…” –April-May, after the grain harvest, 10 years as king in Jerusalem. No responsibilities, let guard down, personal body guard not surrounding him.
v.2- roofs were flat, people bathed on them, David knew that.
v.4- 2Sam. 23:39- Uriah listed as one of David’s mighty men, elite warriors of David’s personal body guard, special forces. Bathsheba’s father, Eliam, also listed in this group.
Uriah a Hittite- either became a Jew, or family did. Name means “my light is the Lord.” Had adopted Israel’s faith.
Cleansed of menstrual cycle, not pregnant, so when she becomes pregnant, she knows it is David’s child.
v.4- took her. Did she have a choice? Yes, according to God’s Law; would David have relented if she had quoted the Law, reminded him of the fact that he was God’s man, like Abigail did?
David breaks 4 of the 10 commandments, 6th (murder), 7th adultery), 9th(false witness), and 10th (coveting).
v.5- penalty for adultery- Lev. 20:10, Dt. 22:22.
v. 6-13- David attempts to deceive. Uriah shows the very qualities David expected of his warriors. David had never display a lack of integrity before.
v.8- food from the king’s table, wanted Uriah, Bathsheba to enjoy themselves. Bathsheba in on deception.
v.11- David should be with the troops. Uriah behaves as David should have. The ark symbolized God’s presence on the battlefield, but David not there with his men.
v.15- Uriah carries his own death warrant.
v.16- David made it look like Uriah guilty of something worthy of death, some secret treachery. David attacks the reputation of an upright man. In the Psalms, David bitterly complains to God about the lies told about him.
v.17- servants- men who committed their lives to David.
v. 18-25- David would have been justifiably angry if he himself had not ordered Joab to place men close to the wall of the enemy city. David guilty of the murder of those who died with Uriah.
v. 26-27- David violated God’s Law, abused the power given to him by God to shepherd the nation. 1st time scripture says David displeased the Lord.
2Sam. 12: 1-4- A direct accusation might have caused David to deny the charge, justify self, or punish Nathan.
David from humble origins, on the side of the down trodden, knows what its like to suffer from the hands of the mighty.
No honor to the guest if rich man didn’t feed him from his own provisions.
A heinous crime in Israel to steal pet and kill it, but,
v.5-6- Ex.22:1- theft is not punishable by death in the Old Testament.
v.7- “You are that man!” You judge, so judgment comes upon you! I made you king, I delivered you from Saul, David acted with lack of gratitude to God, acted as if he was king through his own efforts. David was saved through the miraculous saving power of God, but David acted as if God didn’t exist.
v.8- David given much, should have been satisfied. Had he wanted more, should have had the faith that God would provide. God is the source of contentment.
v. 9-11- no regard for God’s Law. Broke 4 of 10 commandments. Killed Uriah, other of his soldiers with the sword, even if he didn’t actually wield it himself. Taken wife, family, David will suffer proportional punishment- “eye for an eye.” David will suffer from acts of own family. “The sword will never leave your house.”
v. 11-12- David acted as if God didn’t see in secret, God will punish David in the open.
v.13- confession, no attempt to justify self, didn’t kill or inprison Nathan. The Law condemned David to death (Ex. 21:12, Lev. 20:10), but the Lord forgives David. Why? David was made king to exalt the nation of Israel and to be a picture of Christ. Yet David will suffer the consequences.
v. 14- given God’s enemies an occasion to blaspheme (to ridicule belief in God) like Saul did. David was known to be God’s man. David made God look bad, like Moses did.
v. 23- no infant damnation.
v.24- Solomon means peace.
Jeddidiah means loved by the Lord. Shows God’s continuing grace to a repentant David.
Ps. 51- To the chief musician- of David-after confronted by Nathan about Bathsheba. Confession before all not only what he had done, but admission that apart from God, he is ungodly, sinful. Public role, his repentance had to be public.
v. 1-2- have mercy on me, don’t just forgive, but cleanse. Reliance on God for cleansing, not self, not ritual.
According to God’s tender mercies- David knew of these by experience.
Blot out- like a scroll of David’s kingship kept by God.
v.4- David confesses sin was primarily against God. Broke 4 out of 10 commandments. All sin against persons are sins against God because they are in God’s image.
v.5 does this mean we are sinful because of parents procreative act. No. We are born to sin because we are born with ability to willfully choose sin.
v. 6- God desires truth in inward parts- conduct is not just play acting, but acknowledgement that God is real. Our conduct is acting in faith that God is real and He sees and knows all and is a holy God. He reads our thoughts, knows what is in our hearts. If obey, God will provide wisdom. Like Sermon on the Mount- if lust in heart, impure.
v. 7- prayer for moral integrity- God can make me so clean there are no words to describe it. Purge with hyssop- an herb associated with cleansing, purification. Wash- not just simple cleaning, but beating, pounding.
v.8- let me hear prophetic utterance of forgiveness that leads to assurance of salvation.
v. 10-11- God does this- create new hearts with new desires.
Steadfast- sturdy, strong, reliable.
Without confession and repentance, Holy Spirit grieves. God cannot be in presence of sin. David had been in sin for nearly a year. Holy Spirit can depart, one can lose their salvation. David remembers Saul, doen’t want to end up like him.
v. 12-13- restore joy of salvation, sure knowledge that leads to assurance of salvation. The Holy Spirit is generous, David knows God, then will reach, teach sinners.
v. 14- save me from the guilt of murder.\
v.15- salvation resulting in praise.
v.16-19- no faith in sacrifices, this would lead to play acting before others. But faith in God, brokenness before God, then God will accept sacrifices offered in faith. A prayer not just for himself, but for Jerusalem and all his people.
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